Wednesday, September 30, 2015

The Northwest Territory: Illinois

The Illinois Territory was under French control until 1763, when it went to the British. The region became US Territory in 1783.

The Illinois-Wabash Company claimed much of Illinois early on. Fort Dearborn [Chicago] was established in 1803. The Illinois Territory was established in 1809. Illinois became the 21st state in 1818 and Kaskaskia was the 1st capital. Two years later, the capital was moved to Vandalia. In 1837, a young legislator named Abraham Lincoln suggested that Springfield become the capital. Chicago would become a major port city on the Great Lakes.

Family connections: The McHughs settled briefly near Galena in the mid-1840s before moving to Wisconsin. The famly would return to live in Chicago from about 1904-11 before heading to Indianapolis. The Crails were in Chicago at that time as well.

Illinois reading:

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

The Northwest Territory: Indiana

French fur traders were the first Europeans to establish settlements in what would became the state of Indiana. Trading posts and forts were established by the French at Fort Miamis [Fort Wayne], Ouiatenon [Lfayette] and Vincennes by 1732.

During the French and Indian War, Robert Rogers led a force of British rangers to secure Forts Detroit, Miamis and Vincennes. Chief Pontiac, allied with the French, laid siege to Fort Detroit, while other tribes attacked Forts Miamis, Vincennes and Ouiatenon. All was for naught, as the French surrendered to Great Britain and ceded the territory to the Brits.

During the Revolution, George Rogers Clark's Virginia militia wrested control of Vincennes and other regional forts from the British.

Modern-day Indiana became part of the Northwest Territory in 1787. Vincennes and Clark's Grant [a large tract of land on the Ohio, across from Louisville, KY, granted to George Rogers Clark for his Rev War service] were the only settlements. Indiana Territory was created in 1800. William Henry Harrison [1800-1813] and Thomas Posey [1813-1816] served as territorial governors. Vincennes served as the capital until a new capitol building was finished at Corydon in southern Indiana in 1813. During the War of 1812, General Harrison defeated Shawnee chief Tecumseh at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Jonathan Jennings was among those who led the push to make Indiana a state.

Indiana settlement developed along the Ohio River and gradually shifted northward as Indian tribes were push farther north and west. By the time statehood was granted in 1816 a new, more centrally located capital was needed.

In 1820 a site on the White River became the new capital, Indianapolis. City founders believed that the White River would become a major water route for trade into the city. They were wrong. However, the National Road would reach the city by 1825 and make Indianapolis a major trade hub.
A canal system was developed during the 1830s, but soon replaced by the railroad. Indiana's population would continue to grow northward.

Family connections: Faucett [1824], Cawby, Gulley, Clark, Simmons, Crousore, Crail, O'Neil, Prall, McHugh [c1912] and a few others in between. The majority of the families came in from SW Ohio and worked their way north into central Indiana. The Pralls came into Grant Co. and the McHughs arrived from Chicago.

More on Indiana:

Monday, September 28, 2015

Northwest Territory: Ohio

Prior to the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the Ohio Territory had been claimed by France and Great Britain. After the French and Indian War, the victorious British forbade settlement and promised the Indians the land was theirs.

Ohio was home to the Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandot and other tribes. The Indians staged raids on white settlements on lands they considered to be their own. Many whites were taken captive, adopted into the tribe or ransomed back to their families. Far more were killed.

In 1787, the Ohio Company began a settlement at Marietta. That was followed by the Miami Company acquiring the Symmes Purchase in SW Ohio and the Connecticut Western Reserve purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in NE Ohio.

Ohio's statehood was belated granted on 1 March 1803. Statehood had been granted earlier in the year, but was to be postponed until Louisiana admission in 1812. The issue was rectified in 1953.

Capitals: Chillicothe [1803-1810, 1812-1816], Zanesville [1810-1812] and Columbus [1816-present]

Cincinnati was founded in 1788 and served as Ohio's major southern port. Most settlers coming into southwestern Ohio came by way of the Ohio River and entered through Cincinnati, especially those coming in from Pennsylvania and the Mid-Atlantic region. Others from the Mid-Atlantic settled at Marietta and other towns that sprang up along the river. From there some headed north. Many New Englanders settled the Connecticut Reserve.

Family connections: Faucett, Mahurin/Hurin, Clark, Crail, Crousore, Smith, Simmons, Moore, Wolary, Prall and others. The Faucetts and Mahurins were the 1st arrivals during the late 1790s. The Pralls trailed the migration, arriving during the late 1860s.

More Ohio:

Sunday, September 27, 2015

The Northwest Territory and Kentucky: After the 13 Colones

I posted about my various families winding up in Kentucky, Oho and Indiana after leaving their colonial roots. I thought the development of the Old Northwest and Kentucky warranted mention as well.

The Northwest became an incorporated US territory on 13 July 1787 and remained so until 1 March 1803 when the state of Ohio was admitted to the Union. The territory was claimed, at one time or another, by France, Great Britain, Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania.

After the French and Indian War, the "Ohio Territory" was set aside for Indians and forbidden to colonial settlement by the British under the Royal Proclamation of 1763. The proclamation was largely ignored by those interested in settling the western lands.

During the American Revolution, the British enlisted Native American to raid American settlements as far south as Kentucky and western Virginia. Most unsettling was the fact that the British commander at Detroit was paying for American scalps. In 1779, George Rogers Clark led a volunteer Virginia militia into the Illinois territory to put an end to the British occupation. Clark successfully took control of Kaskaskia [present-day Illinois] and Vincennes [present-day Indiana] and forced "Hair-buyer" Hamilton to surrender. Clark planned on taking Detroit as well, but that mission never came to fruition. Clark claimed the country for Virginia, calling it Illinois County. After the war, the northwest became US territory, but was still under strong British influence until the end of the War of 1812.

In 1784 a land ordinance was passed organizing the territory. A second ordinance passed in 1785 established the township - range method for dividing the land into saleable lots. Parts of the Ohio Territory had already been settled using the old metes and bounds system, so Ohio was organized under both survey systems. Marietta, Ohio [1788] was the first new settlement north of the Ohio River.

Three major military engagements took place between the US and local Indians. "Mad Anthony" Wayne marked up a victory in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. In 1790, General Josiah Hamer was  defeated in "Little Turtle's War."The most devastating defeat in US military history at the hands of Indians came in 1791 when general and territorial governor Arthur St. Clair was defeated by the combined forces of Little Turtle [Miami] and Blue Jacket [Shawnee] at the Battle of the Wabash. St. Clair resigned his commission and was later removed as governor.

The Indiana Territory was created in 1800, in preparation for Ohio's statehood. Ohio became a state in 1803. Five more states would be carved out of the Old Northwest: Indiana [1816], Illinois [1818],
Michigan [1837], Wisconsin [1848] and Minnesota [1858].

I'll take a brief look at the early years of each state and then wrap up with a post on "Kaintuck." Needless to say, I will give mention to my pioneer families in each state.

Saturday, September 26, 2015

A brief return to my preparations for the Salt Lake Institute [Jan. 11-15, 2016]. Below is the basics of a family group sheet or record. As you can see, I have my work cut out for me so far as filling in the blanks on Malcolm, Martha and the children. Hopefully, some of those empty spaces will be filled by the time SLIG is over. If you are interested in attending, there are still some slots available in a few of the courses.
Malcolm MacCallum Family 18 September 2015

Father Mackum /Micam / Malcolm Callum / MacCallum1–2

Birth Scotland2



Marriage ca 1655 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts3


Mother Martha [Callum / MacCallum]





Family Sources2


F Mary Callum / MacCallum

Birth 12 Sep 1657 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts4



F Ann Callum / MacCallum5

Birth 25 Aug 1659 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts5



Spouse Peter Twiss Sr. (1654-1743)

Marriage 26 Oct 1680 Marblehead, Essex, Massachusetts Bay, British America6

M John Callum / MacCallum

Birth 17 Dec 1661 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts5



M Callum "Caleb" Callum / MacCallum

Birth 30 May 1664 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts3



M Daniel Callum / MacCallum

Birth 2 Jun 1667 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts3



F Martha Callum / MacCallum

Birth 18 Jun 1670 Lynn, Essex Co., Massachusetts5

Death 17 Apr 1706 Attleboro, Massachusetts Bay, British America


Spouse John Follett (1669-1719)

Marriage 10 Jul 1694 Lynn [Saugus], Essex, Massachusetts Bay, British America

Preparer Comments

Friday, September 25, 2015

Beyond the Colonies: Wrapping up the 1st 13

Well, I have concluded my brief look at the 13 colonies. I had at least one family settle in 10 of them, I believe. It has been interesting to see the number of hits on each. Most received my usual 5 or 6. 18 hits on Connecticut was a real surprise!

Where did my ancestors go from the colonies? Several moved on to other colonies/states among the 13. Massachusetts to New York or New Jersey, for example. My Pralls covered several; New Netherland/York to New Jersey to  Maryland to Pennsylvania.

The New Englanders eventually moved west through NY and/or PA into Ohio. Likewise those who began in the Mid-Atlantic went west into Ohio for the most part. A few, primarily Quaker families headed south into VA before swinging northwest into Ohio a couple of generations later.

The Southern colonials took a couple of routes north. Most went from VA into Kentucky. One, the Cawbys went from NC into Kentucky.

Ohio and Kentucky served as the gateway to Indiana. From 1824 until 1876 the ancestral clans made their way into central Indiana. Hendricks, Rush, Delaware, Madison, Howard, Tipton, Miami, Grant and a handful of other counties eventually fed into Marion County.

A few families bolted for other states for a few years. The Crails, for example, went to Canada and Illinois before returning to Marion Co. My grandfather left Grant Co. for Cincinnati before landing in Indianapolis.

What it boils down to, is that all of those English, Dutch, Walloon, Welsh, Scottish, German, Irish and other folks became HOOSIERS! :)-

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Southern Colonies: Virginia

The Virginia Company founded Jamestown in 1607. Disease, famine and conflict with the Powhatan Confederacy left Jamestown on the brink of failure after two years. New settlers and supplies arrived in 1610.  In 1624, the colonial charter was revoked and Virginia became a crown colony.

The House of Burgesses and a colonial governor governed Virginia from Jamestown until 1699, when the capital was moved to Williamsburg.

The states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois and part of Ohio and western Pennsylvania were carved from the territory claimed by Virginia.

Tobacco became the cash crop for the colony. The tobacco region was divided into "Hundreds," part of a county that would support one hundred families. Indentured servants, white and black, were used as labor until 1662, when slave labor became the more common from of servitude.

As was the case with the other southern colonies, Virginia's coastal region was settled by the English plantation owners. The frontier was populated by the Scots-Irish and other groups who were not inclined to plantation life, or simply arrived too late to acquire prime land.

During the French and Indian War, Shawnee and other tribes ventured into western Virginia to raid the sparse settlements there. Many of the settlers were killed, but some of the women and children were taken captive. Some were adopted into the tribes, others were killed along the way. Later on, many captives were exchanged and returned to their families or "civilization."

During the Revolution, little action took place in Virginia until the war moved south. The capital was moved to Richmond in 1780. Generals von Steuben and Lafayette engaged in skirmishes with the British during 1781. Jefferson and his home at Monticello were nearly captured. The key event during the war was the siege of Yorktown, which led to Cornwallis' surrender and the eventual end of the war.

[Then there's the whole Pocahontas and John Smith thing.]

Family connections: Faucett, Gulley, Land, Sumter, Smith, Barlow, Rogers, Rinker, Ballinger, Schultz, Pugh, Wolary, Wright. Several were Quakers from PA & NJ who settled in Frederick Co., VA.

Additional reading: _of_Virginia,;_ylt=Ah7cDaswiIhxv5Ja7J1lKdCbvZx4?p=colonial+virginia&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp-t-339&fp=1

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Southernn Colonies: North Carolina

North Carolina was separated from South Carolina in 1712. It's history dates back to the Roanoke Colony in 1587 and the birth of the first white child in colonial America, Virginia Dare. Roanoke founder John White returned to England for supplies. Upon his return in 1590, White found the colony abandoned.

The frontier regions of western NC were opposed to slavery, which was prominent in the eastern part of the colony.

During the late 1760s, some Carolinians opposed the government of the colony. These "Regulators" took up arms against newly appointed governor William Tryon in 1771. Tryon had built a lavish mansion in New Bern the previous year. Tryon's army defeated the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance.

North Carolina was the site of two overwhelming Continental victories during the Revolution. At Kings Mountain, a force of patriot militia attacked and defeated the loyalist militia there. At the Battle of Cowpens, Daniel Morgan's brilliant strategy in the use of the normally undependable militia led to the defeat of Col. Banastre Tarleton's elite troops and cavalry.

Family connections: Cawby

Additional reading:

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

Southern Colonies: The Carolinas [and South Carolina]

The Cape Fear region became the Carolinas in 1629 under Robert Heath and included present-day NC, SC, GA, TN, AL, MS and parts of FL & LA. Heath wished it to be a haven for French Huguenots. The king ruled that North Carolina would be subject to the Church of England . Heath sold out to Lord Berkeley and moved to France. A new charter was granted to the "Lord Proprietors" led by Anthony Ashley-Cooper in 1663.

The northern and southern parts of the colony operated separately until a governor was appointed to rule the colony in 1708.

South Carolina : 1712 marked the separation of the Carolinas. Frontiersmen from Pennsylvania and Virginia had populated the northern regions of the colony and wealthy English planters the south. Charleston became the capital and a major seaport.

During the Revolution, South Carolina was occupied by the British after the fall of Charleston in 1780. The Battle of Camden was a devastating defeat for the Continental Army under Horatio Gates. Nathanael Greene was dispatched to salvage the Southern Army and with the help of partisan guerilla fighters led by the likes of Francis Marion and Thomas Sumter was able to "fight, get beat, get up and fight again" until the war's end.

Family connection: Thomas Sumter was a collateral ancestor.

Read on:

Monday, September 21, 2015

Southern Colonies: Georgia

Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732 and named for King George II, was designed to be a safe haven for debtors. Oglethorpe envisioned a colony free from alcohol and slavery with small farms rather than large landholdings. Colonists disagreed with Oglethorpe's vision. He brought 240 colonists to the site of modern-day Savannah to establish a proprietary colony. In 1652 Georgia became a crown colony.

Slavery was instituted in 1749, although it was opposed by Scottish settlers in the colony. Georgia settlement was primarily along the Savannah River. The western lands were part of the Cherokee Confederation.

Georgia was under British occupation from 1780 until the end of the Revolutionary War.


Family connections: Enoch Gulley spent a couple of years farming on the Georgia/Tennessee border.

Sunday, September 20, 2015

Mid-Atlantic Colonies: Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Colony was founded in 1681 when William Penn was granted a charter by King Charles II. The colony was named in honor of Penn's father. The charter remained with the Penn family until the American Revolution.

Penn was a real estate entrepreneur and Quaker. His colony was a haven for the Quakers being persecuted in Great Britain. The colony also welcomed people of other faiths, among them Mennonites and Amish.  In 1688, Mennonite Wilhelm Rittenhouse opened the first paper mill in British America near Germantown.

Penn ordered fair dealings with the Lenape and other local tribes. Although, what amounted as an approximately 1.2 million acre land grab, tested the limits of fair play in 1737. A treaty allowing the colonists to acquire all of the land to the west that could be walked in a day and a half was agreed to. The fastest runners available were recruited to run a already marked and cleared. The land became a large part of NE Pennsylvania and was called the Walking Purchase. Although the Lenape fought for 19 years to have the treaty annulled, they lost and were forced to join other displaced tribes in the Shamokin and Wyoming Valleys.

Philadelphia would become a primary port of entry for many of the colony's settlers. It would also develop as one of the most important and largest cities in the colonies. The Pennsylvania Hospital [1st in the British American colonies] and the Academy and College of Philadelphia [University of Pennsylvania] opened in 1751. These joined the volunteer fire department as contributions of Benjamin Franklin.

During the French and Indian War, Britain battled France for control of the Ohio country and the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains. General Braddock's command was massacred in the forests of western Pennsylvania near Fort Pitt [Pittsburgh]. George Washington, then a Virginia militia colonel, helped save the survivors of Braddock's troops.

As settlers moved into the Allegheny country, there was little or no military aid from the colony, since the Quakers were pacifists. Western Pennsylvania had to rely on help from Virginia Militia and the resourcefulness of her own frontier families.

Read on:

Family connections: Prall [we moved a lot!], Faucett, Rittenhouse, Miller, Rogers, Rinker, Shultz, Wright, Harding, Evans, Pugh, Fry, Clark, Crousore and a few others. [Many of these were Quaker families who migrated to Virginia.]

Saturday, September 19, 2015

Mid-Atlantic Colonies: Maryland

Maryland was unique among the 13 colonies in that it provided religious freedom for Catholics. George  Calvert, Lord Baltimore, applied for a royal charter in 1632. Calvert died before the charter was granted, so it went to his son Cecilius. The first settlers arrived on St. Clement's Island in southern Maryland in 1634. They were led by Leonard Calvert, Cecilius' younger brother. About 200 indentured servants were with Calvert's group. The town of St. Mary's was established. Calvert took over a Protestant settlement on Kent's Island in 1638. The Protestants counterattacked and forced Calvert to flee to Virginia in 1644. He would later return to leadership in Maryland in 1646.

Virginia Puritans opposed to the Anglican Church in that colony, established the town of Providence [Annapolis] in 1642. The Puritans overthrew the proprietary government in 1650, outlawing Catholicism and Anglicanism. In 1655  Calvert sent an army under Gov. William Stone to regain control. Stone's army was defeated and he was captured. Calvert was back in charge by 1658. Annapolis became the seat of government in 1702.

Tobacco was the chief crop of colonial Maryland. The planters utilized slaves, indentured servants and penal labor to harvest the crop.

During the years leading up to the American Revolution, Maryland patriots were active in the various committees opposing British rules. Marylanders sent relief to Boston after that city's port was closed.

William Smallwood led a Maryland Regiment to New York in 1776. The Maryland and Delaware regiments distinguished themselves during the Battle of Brooklyn. They held the field to allow the Continentals to retreat. 400 of the Marylanders were captured or taken prisoner. The Continental Line troops from those two states would continue to be the top regiments until they were decimated by casualties.

More on Maryland:

Family connections: Cawby, Rhodes, Cunningham, Wright, Prall.  [Edward Prall served with the 1st Maryland, nephew Cornelius Jr. settled in Maryland for several years.]

Friday, September 18, 2015

Mid-Atlantic Colonies: New Jersey

The coast of present-day New Jersey was first explored by Henry Hudson. The western part of New Jersey was part of New Sweden from 1638 until 1655. The rest was part of New Netherland. The Dutch took over New Sweden in 1655. The British gained control in 1664.

Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley became proprietors of the colony and appointed Philip Carteret to oversee their colony. Berkeley eventually sold his interest to the Quakers in 1673. The colony was subsequently divided into East and West Jersey. The border was marked by the present-day boundaries of Monmouth, Burlington, Mercer, Ocean, Somerset and Hunterdon Counties. East Jersey lay to the north and east of the border.

The Dutch and Quakers figured prominently in Jersey's settlement, especially along the Delaware River in West Jersey. East Jersey was far more English.

After the fall of New York in 1776, Washington led the remnants of his tattered army across the Jerseys and the Delaware into Pennsylvania. On Christmas night the Continentals went back across the river to stage a surprise attack on the Hessian garrison stationed at Trenton. The first American victory came in West Jersey. Local patriots had helped supply Washington with the boats used in the Delaware Crossing and prevented those boat from falling into British hands. During the winter campaign, Jersey militiamen were instrumental in aggravating the British. Citizens not inclined to take military action, still would help the cause by hiding their livestock from British foraging parties.  

Family connections: Prall, Whittaker, Rittenhouse, Howell, Baker, Ballinger, Harding and a handful of others.

For more:

Thursday, September 17, 2015

Mid-Atlantic Colonies: New Netherland & New York: Part II: New York

The English gained control of the Dutch territory in North America in 1664. New Netherland was renamed for the Duke of York [New York] as was New Amsterdam. Most of the other settlements were renamed as well. Fort Orange became Albany, Wildwyck became Kingston, and so forth.

East and West Jersey were created out of New York in 1665. New York also included parts of present-day Massachusetts and Connecticut, Maine, Vermont and Delaware. Western New York was under control of the Iroquois tribe.

The Netherlands regained control of the colony in 1673, but lost it again to England the following year.

Edmund Andros served as governor for several years. It was a contentious reign. Andros was frequently at odds with local citizens, be the English, Dutch, Walloon or Huguenot. He also had disputes with neighboring colonies.

New York became a Royal Colony in 1686. During the French and Indian War, upstate New York saw a good deal of fighting between the English/Iroquois alliance and the French and their native allies. New York was one of the leading colonies in the protests against the British. Still the colony had more than its share of those loyal to the Crown.

The British invaded New York during the fall of 1776 and defeated Washington's Continental Army. The Battle of Brooklyn and subsequent battles nearly ended the Revolution. New York City and its environs were under British control for the duration of the war. Yet, some of the patriots who chose to remain in their homes became part of Washington's spy network.
 and a handful of others
General Washington would make his triumphant return in 1783.

Family connections: Whittaker, Wakeman, Dally, Simmons, Jennison, Lockwood, St. John, and a handful of others. Edward Prall, serving with Smallwood's Marylanders, saw action at the Battle of Brooklyn and was taken prisoner. John Simmons Sr. ran a tavern at the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets. The tavern was the site of the swearing in of NY City's mayor in 1784.

Further reading:

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Mid-Atlantic Colonies: New Netherland & New York: Part I: New Netherland

New Netherland/New York, a colony under two different nations deserves two posts. Here's part one:

The Dutch East India Company claimed the Hudson Valley region as a result of Henry Hudson's exploration of the Atlantic Coast in 1609. The primary interest of the Dutch was the fur trade. Early on they maintained a fairly good relationship with the Five Nations [tribes] of the region. Several trading posts were established along the North, South and Fresh Rivers.

A permanent settlement was established at Fort Orange [Albany] in 1624. Many of the early settlers were Walloons, Huguenots and Africans [who were eventually able to gain 'half-free' status.]

Under new director Peter Minuit [1626] the colony began to grow. Manhattan Island was purchased and Fort Amsterdam and the walled settlement of New Amsterdam were built. Rennselaerswyck, Beverwyck and Widwyck were also established as settlements.

Dutch settlements were set up on a patron system. The patron was granted a large tract of land and could set up a government. He was required to settle 50 families on the tract.

Peter Stuyvesant became governor/director-general in 1647. During his reign, the colony grew, He took over New Sweden and faced war with the Esopus Indians. The Peach War of 1655, so named because a settler shot an Indian for stealing peaches, led to the Cornelis May settlement on Staten Island being wiped out and several other towns being burned.

Walloon, Huguenot and Dutch settlers continued to establish towns along the North River. Staten Island was resettled in 1661.

In 1664, the English gained control of New Netherland and renamed it New York. The Dutch briefly regained control on 1673.

Family connections: Prall, Billiou, DuBois, Christopher.Christoffels, Garrisson/Gerritsen, Blom, Swart, Titsoort and a few other.

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Mid-Altlantic Colonies: A Brief Look at Delaware

Part of coastal Delaware was "purchased" from the Lenape by the Dutch West India Company in 1629. The Zwaanendael Colony was established on this land in 1631. Problems soon erupted between the Lenape and Dutch settlers and further settlement was deemed too risky.

In 1638 the New Sweden Company established a colony at Swede's Landing, later Fort Christina [now Wilmington]. Finns, Dutch, Walloons, Germans and Swedes made up the new colony. New Netherland governor Peter Stuyvesant invaded the Swedish colony in 1651 and built Fort Casmir near Fort Christina. The Dutch finally took over the colony in 1655 and renamed Fort Casmir New Amstel [New Castle.] Dutch control lasted until 1664, when the English took control of Dutch territory.

Family connection: It appears that my Hubbard line was from Delaware.

Monday, September 14, 2015

New England: New Hampshire and Vermont - briefly

New Hampshire was founded in 1623. The colony was never able to establish its own government and relied on Massachusetts Bay for protection. The colony eventually agreed to be governed by its southern neighbor in 1641. NH was granted its own charter in 1679.

Most of Norfolk County, Massachusetts was absorbed by New Hampshire. As a result, there may be a need to check records for both states in researching Norfolk ancestors. My Benedict, Peabody and Waller families resided in Norfolk Co.

 More here:

Vermont should also be mentioned in the blog. Massachusetts Bay claimed the Vermont region  in 1629. New York laid claim to the region in 1664. New Hampshire also laid claim to Vermont and established the Hampshire Grants on the NY side of the Green Mountains and establishing the town of Bennington. In 1777 the citizens of Vermont declared themselves a republic.

No family ties in Vermont until the McHughs and Tierneys briefly tried logging during the early part of the Great Depression.

Sunday, September 13, 2015

New England: Providence Plantation and Rhode Island

In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts Bay for his religious views and settled on Narragansett Bay on land granted him by the Narragansett tribe. He named the land "Providence." Williams' colony was open to all faiths.

Aquidneck Island, then called Rhode Island, was settled by Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington and other religious dissenters from Massachusetts Bay in 1638. Samuel Gorton and a group of followers, known as Gortonites, purchased land at Shawomet in 1642.

In 1644, Providence, Portsmouth and Newport joined together as the Colonies of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Gorton was granted a charter in 1648, naming his settlement Warwick. The Royal Charter of 1663 united all four settlements under one colony.

Rhode Island was a haven for religious freedom, including Jews and Catholics. The colony also enjoyed peaceful relations with the Narragansetts and other local tribes until King Philip's War in 1675. After militia from Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth and Connecticut invaded the Narragansett village in the Great Swamp, the natives retaliated by burning Rhode Island settlements.

Rhode Island families: Roger Williams, Samuel Gorton, Waterman, Rhodes, Arnold, Dungan, Holden, Greene, Remington, Wall, Goddard and a few others.


Saturday, September 12, 2015

New England: Colonies of Saybrook, New Haven and Connecticut

Connecticut was originally called the River Colony. It was founded by Puritans on 3 March 1636 as a Puritan settlement. Thomas Hooker and John Haynes were considered the founders. John Winthrop Jr. served as governor from 1659-1675 and was instrumental in bringing the various settlements together as one colony.

Saybrook Colony was founded by the aforementioned John Winthrop Jr. in 1635. Saybrook struggled as a colony and merged with Connecticut in 1644.

New Haven was founded in 1637, but was never granted a charter. New Haven communities began to join Connecticut in 1662. The last three holding out until 1664.

In 1687, Governor Andros arrived in Hartford and demanded the colonial charter. Local citizens hid the charter in an oak tree and refused to turn it over. This tree became known as the Charter Oak.

Connecticut families: Wakeman, St. John, Keeney, Douglas, Turner, Hazen, Olmstead, Lockwood and others. Some migrated from Massachusetts;  others made their first homes in Connecticut.

Read on:;

Friday, September 11, 2015

New England: Massachusetts Bay

The short-lived Cape Ann settlement in 1623 was founded by the Massachusetts Bay Company. In 1628 the company started a second and successful settlement at Salem. The Winthrop Fleet arrived in 1630, with numerous others to follow.

The Puritan founders of the colony had little toleration for differing religious views. Quakers were openly persecuted, Roger Williams' views led to him fleeing the colony to avoid imprisonment, several others faced similar circumstances. Rhode Island would be founded by those opposing the strict policies of the Puritan government.

Salem [1626], Gloucester [1623], Boston [1630], Cambridge [1630], Waterton [1630], Dorcester [1630], Lynn [1629], Saugus [1629], and Charlestown [1628 - 1st capital] were among early towns. Several are now part of Boston.

In 1691, King William III negotiated a charter chiefly with Increase Mather to incorporate Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth into a single colony. 1692 saw the Salem Witch trials wreak havoc on Salem Village [now Danvers]. Massachusetts included what is now the state of Maine.

The colony would be at the forefront of the push for Independence from Great Britain during the 1760s and early 1770s.


Ancestral families: Almost to numerous to mention! Howland [Quakers], Mahurin, Joyce, Low, Lockwood [Winthrop fleet], Jennison, Twiss, Singletary, Maverick, Nurse, Towne and many, many more. Edmund Lockwood arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630. Rebecca Towne Nurse was accused of witchcraft and hanged at Salem in 1692.

Thursday, September 10, 2015

New England: Plymouth Colony

The Separatists, who had initially fled to the Netherlands to escape religious persecution in England in 1607, were the founders of Plymouth Colony in 1620. After residing in Amsterdam and Leiden, the leaders feared their children were being influenced by Dutch customs and opted for the "New World."

The Separatists obtained a patent from the London Virginia Company and set sail from Plymouth, England aboard the Mayflower and the Speedwell. Speedwell turned out to be unseaworthy and the Mayflower made the Atlantic voyage alone. The voyage took just over two months, with the ship landing near Cape Cod on 9 November 1620. [They had planned on landing at the mouth of the North [Hudson] River.]

Before landing, the men on board the ship agreed to the Mayflower Compact, the social contract by which they would live. The settlers, who became known as the Pilgrims, faces a severe first winter and only survived with the help of Squanto and chief Massasoit's people. The autumn celebration in 1621 gave birth to our Thanksgiving holiday.

The Fortune arrived in November 1621 with new settlers. Other ships would arrive over the next few years bringing more colonists.

Plymouth [capital], Barnstable, Eastham, Taunton, Bristol, Barnstable and other towns were built in the colony. The colony was divided into Bristol, Plymouth and Barnstable counties.

Plymouth Colony merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.

Pilgrim William Brewster, son Jonathan, and Gov. Thomas Prence were among my Plymouth ancestors.

More at:

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

Settling the Colonies

I have frequently posted stories, timelines, etc. on various ancestors. For the next few days I'll be taking a look at the settlement of the English and Dutch colonies where my ancestors settled. Unfortunately, not all will get equal treatment. Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Netherland/New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina will get most of the coverage. Some more than others. Delaware and New Hampshire will get a brief mention. Georgia and South Carolina will be neglected due to not being among those colonies that were entry points for my ancestors.

The parameters of my postings will begin with earliest arrival and conclude with 1800. I do have a few ancestors who arrived post 1800. The McHughs arrived in Pennsylvania from Donegal, Ireland during the 1830s. The Wagners and Laubschers from Baden were in Pennsylvania by the early 1840s. Cork, Ireland native Catherine O'Neil landed in New York about 1852.  Otherwise, my ancestral families were all ensconced in America by 1800.

I'll take a look at settlement patterns and key arrival dates. I will mention a few of my families settling each colony, but not bore you rehashing their stories. [Well, maybe a little.]

Be aware that several families that landed in one colony may have become prominent settlers in another.

I will start off with New England, followed by the Mid-Atlantic and the South. Plymouth Colony will draw the lead-off position.

Tuesday, September 8, 2015

A Final Note on On-line Family Trees

My posts on online trees were fairly negative, so I should mention a few positives that can come of them.

(1) CLUES! Even though a tree may be undocumented, there may be some clues that you can take advantage of: dates - if a birth, marriage or death date is given without a source, make note of it and look for a source for the event.

(2) PARENTS! You may be missing parents for your ancestor. If parents for your ancestor appear on a tree, follow-up. Check census records to see if this couple fits your person. Pre-1850 will be tougher. Look at the ages of the children to see if yours is a fit. 1850 and after, if your ancestor isn't there, don't lose hope. Look at age gaps. If there's a 4-5 year gap where your ancestor would fit, then maybe it's a fit. Look at neighbors to see if your ancestor is living away from home. Search other records to see if this couple could be a fit. Keep searching for confirmation.

(3) SIBLINGS! See procedures under #2 above.

(4) LIFE EVENTS! If the tree mentions military service, another marriage or some other detail, search records to confirm.

Monday, September 7, 2015

Labor Day "tribute"

I may be reaching a bit here on the intent of the Labor Day celebration, but....

Many family history researchers are anxious to tie into a royal line, a US President, or some famous historical personage. Take today to stop and pay tribute to our "regular ancestors."

The majority or our ancestors were farmers, day laborers, carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, jewelers, wheelwrights, shopkeepers, tavern keepers, teamsters [wagon driver type teamsters], machinists, railroaders, brewers, or any of a number of other "regular professions."

Celebrate the common folk! Get back to the nobles and politicians tomorrow.

Sunday, September 6, 2015

More on on-line family trees

In an effort to upset more tree posters, here are a few of my pet peeves:
(1) Don't use an undocumented tree as a source, unless you note the tree is undocumented!

(2) Don't cite the wrong sources, if used. People have cited a marriage record for, say, James Elliot and Dora Lee, and the couple on the tree is James Elliot and Rosa Norris. The wrong record is as bad as no record!

(3) If your source negates info on your tree, don't use it! Pay attention people! Someone will post a well-documented will, bio, or other item that clearly shows that the person tied to that record is not mentioned in the record.

(4) Don't latch on to information, just because it fits. Research to find out if it does fit.

(5) Check your dates! Chances are Henry Willis [1789-1843] is not the husband of Alice Dunn [1770-1840]. The odds of Seth [b. 1810], Sarah [b. 1814] and Stephen [b. 1817] being Alice's children are slim as well. Some women did have children into their 40s, but not frequently - especially at 47.

Saturday, September 5, 2015

Family Trees posted on-line

I will probably incur the wrath of hundreds who have put their family trees on the internet. Numerous free and pay sites offer the opportunity to post family trees.

Few, if any, require documentation. As well meaning as these researchers are, it seems that fitting pieces together is often more important than fitting the RIGHT pieces together. Even those who post trees with limited documentation frequently ignore the documentation.

I have made my share of errors during 25 years of research. I do try to fix those errors as soon as possible. Example, a few months ago I discovered that I had the wrong John Low in my tree and mentioned that foul-up in a couple of posts.

A few years ago, I discovered that "Anny Ice" was not the wife of Jacob Crousore. It was Ama Jemima Smith. I notified several people with Crousore-related trees and gave explanation and documentation. Almost no response. About 20-22 trees still have Anny as Jacob's wife.

If you are going to post a tree on-line, please do the following:
(1) Document, document, document!
(2) If you don't have a source, add "probably," "believed to be," or some other disclaimer.
(3) Check your dates to make sure everything fits.

Friday, September 4, 2015

New Info for Salt Lake Project!

I was searching the Family History Library catalog yesterday to line up some books and microfilms to check in January. One source led me to another online site about the Scottish Prisoners. This one had three new tidbits about Malcolm MacCallum.

#1: Malcolm lived for 19 weeks during his indenture at the Saugus Iron Works company farm. Several of the Scots worked at the farm caring for cattle and other livestock. Daniel Salmon ran the farm.

#2. It was noted that his daughter Ann married Peter Twist [Twiss], who was a servant and associated with the ironworkers, but did not work at  the Iron Works.

#3. MacCallum may have worked at the Bromingum Forge in Rowley in 1673.

Not only more leads on Malcolm, but also on daughter Ann! She is also my line.

New research topics: Daniel Salmon, the Saugus Iron Works farm, Bromingum Forge and Rowley, MA.

Thursday, September 3, 2015

Lineage Societies Follow-up

I neglected to mention one item in yesterday's post. With some of the organizations you can piggy-back on someone else's ancestor.

For example, if you file an application with the Sons of the American Revolution on your ancestor Hiram Prescott and someone else has already filed and been accepted, then all you have to do is prove your line back to a common ancestor. If the ancestor is on file with the DAR, the same applies.

For example:
SAR  application                                                     DAR member
John Prescott [b. 1955], son of                              Ann McMurray [1937-2008], daughter of
Lucas Prescott [1920-1993], son of                       Diana Keller McMurray [1919-2000], daughter of
William Prescott [1897-1946], son of                   Charles McMurray [1897-1936], son of
Raymond Prescott [1869-1927], son of                 James McMurray [1855-1890], son of
Samuel Prescott [1845-1880], son of                    Maude McMurray Slate [1827-1884], daughter of
Hiram Prescott III [1816-1857], son of                 Ellen Prescott Slate [1803-1866], daughter of
Hiram Prescott II [1780-1836], son of                  Hiram Prescott II [1780-1836], son of
Hiram Prescott I [1751-1829], patriot                   Hiram Prescott I [1751-1828], patriot

If John Prescott has the documentation back to Hiram III and can prove a familial relationship to Ellen Slate, he should be good to go.

Check membership requirements for those societies that interest you to see if this is an option.

Wednesday, September 2, 2015

Lineage Societies

One of the "perks" of doing genealogy research is finding out that one or more of your ancestors achieved enough prominence to qualify you to apply for a  membership in a lineage society.

There are a wide variety of these organizations. There are military societies, royal societies, religious societies, town and colonial founders societies, pioneer societies and others. Some are restricted to male descendants, others to female. There are also children's societies. The vast majority require a direct line to the qualifying ancestor and plenty of documentation proving that line.

Beginning with yourself, you need to document the birth and marriage, and generally death, of each generation of the family back to the ancestor that qualifies you for membership.

To the best of my knowledge I qualify for a handful of state and national societies: The Society of Indiana Pioneers [through about a half dozen different ancestors], Son of the American Revolution [several ancestors], First Families of Ohio [member, two qualifying lines], Mayflower Society [Wm. Brewster], Sons of the Union Veterans of the Civil War, Society of the Descendants of the Founders of Hartford [CT], Flagon and Trenchor [tavernkeepers prior to 4 July 1776] and a few others.

I am currently a member of three lineage societies: First Families of Ohio [Faucett and Mahurin/Hurin families. The Roger Williams Society [descent from Roger Williams] and the Hereditary order of the Signers of the Bush Declaration.

The latter membership is through a collateral line. Some of the lineage societies offer collateral membership. It is generally the case that if your ancestor and the qualifying member of the society share the same parents or grandparents, then you qualify for membership. Example from the HOSBD below:

Hereditary Order of the Signers of the Bush Declaration: On March 22, 1775, a committee of thirty-four Harford, Maryland citizens met at the Bush Tavern and, after deliberation, signed the famous Bush Declaration. The document is characterized as the first Declaration of Independence ever adopted by an organized body of men duly elected by the people.

An applicant must furnish proof of his or her blood relationship within the second degree of kinship to a Signer of the Bush Declaration on March 22, 1775. By way of explanation see the following:
1) The applicant is lineally (directly) descended from the Signer.
2) Collateral descent (or 1st degree of kinship) through which the applicant's ancestor and the Signer have the same parents.
3) Consanguine relation (or 2nd degree of kinship) through which the applicant's ancestor and the Signer have same grandparents.

(I qualified under #2, my ancestor, Cornelius Prall Sr. and signer Edward Prall were the sons of Aaron and Mary [Whittaker] Prall.)

One advantage of applying to a lineage society is that the organization requires documented proof [and copies of the documents] of ancestry. You will know for sure that you are a direct descendant when you get done!

When applying for First Families of Ohio, I had my grandparents marriage application and submitted it as proof of marriage. It was rejected. I needed the marriage license or certificate. A trip to the City County Building Archives resolved the issue and the application was approved.

Even if you aren't interested in joining a lineage society, you might try filling out an application just to satisfy yourself that you have the line proved.

Here is a great link to a list of lineage societies. I found a few more that I qualify for!

Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Research Trip Minor Misadventures

I posted yesterday about research trip preparations. One thing I forgot to mention: Get directions, specific directions!

If your vehicle or phone has GSP, you are set. If not make sure of where you are headed and where you can park.

A few of my misadventures along these lines:

Trenton, NJ: I was headed to the NJ State Archives and the State Library. I drove around the general location for about 10 minutes, then pulled up to a parking meter. I asked the first passerby where  the Archives was. He pointed to a tall building about 50 yards away. I said thanks, put money in the meter and grabbed my research material.

Albany, NY: I had little trouble locating the State Archives, but spent close to a half hour trying to find parking! At long last, I located a parking garage with available space about 6 blocks from my destination.

Annapolis, MD: Another "where the heck is the building" tale. After awhile I gave up on finding the State Archives. I stopped at a fire station to ask for directions. My  destination was directly behind the station.

Baltimore, MD: I was able to find the Historical Society with little problem. The nearest parking spot was about 3 blocks away. I had to leave  to feed the meter every hour.

On the local front, if you need to research at the Indiana State Library and can't find a metered parking spot, try the Indiana Historical Society lot on New York Street. The rates are reasonable. If you research at the IHS Library or make a purchase at the store, parking is free.