Saturday, December 31, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Wrap!

This ends the favorite ancestors posts. I picked over two dozen ancestors to write about. Many others could have been included. All were pioneers in a new land, be it New England, the Middle or Southern colonies. They later helped settle Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin and other states. Mostly they were farmers, millers and mechanics with a few merchants mixed in.

What makes my story unique is that all of them were in the Colonies/States by the mid-1850s. At least that's my viewpoint. So many Americans have their roots in Eastern Europe or from migrations that took place after the Civil War or the start of the 20th century from Asia and other parts of the world.

My ancestors came from England, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Germany, The Netherlands and a few from Switzerland, Sweden and what became Northern France and Belgium [Walloon and Huguenot territory]. It's a good lineage.

Friday, December 30, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Aaron & Cornelius Prall

Aaron Prall, Edward's father, was my direct ancestor. Unraveling his story took five years of old-style research - phone calls, letter writing and ordering records. [This was pre-computers!] There were three of us checking and cross-checking documents and ideas.

Early research on Aaron's line was scattered and numerous incorrect assumptions were made about his family. Aaron's widow named 4 children in her will, so only James, Benjamin, Elizabeth and Jemima were credited to the family.

Edward and Cornelius Sr. were eventually confirmed as children, as we suspected. Edward, already a successful merchant, wrote his mother's [Mary] will. Cornelius was deeded his share of the estate prior to Aaron's death.

Edward had been assigned a wife and children, partly based on his Bounty Land Warrant file. The heirs were primarily nieces and nephews.

Cornelius was married three times. He died in 1813, but the estate was settled in 1819. So Cornelius became two men, one dying in 1813, the other in 1819. Each was assigned children and spouse or spouses. Cornelius' estate settlement was located and his children identified.

Of the former "two Corneliuses," some of the children were correct and some previously unknown were added to the mix.

All along we suspected Cornelius belonged to Aaron and Mary. One court document sealed the deal, "Cornelius Praalle, son of Aaron."

Five years of work lands Aaron and his son Cornelius on the favorites list

Thursday, December 29, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Edward Prall

Edward Prall, son of Aaron Prall and Mary Whittaker, was a native of Hunterdon Co., NJ. After his trading partnership with Richard Reading dissolved over political alliances, Edward moved to Harford Co., MD. [Reading was a loyalist and went to Canada.]

Edward started a new business and became involved with local patriotic activities during the 1760s and early 1770s. Harford Countians smuggled supplies to Boston after the port was closed by the British. A very well-trained militia group was formed. On 22 March 1775, the Harford Resolves were signed by the Harford Committee in support of the actions of the Continental Congress.

Prall and other local patriots joined Col. William Smallwood's regiment and marched to New York to support Washington's army. The Marylanders, along with the Delaware Regiment, held off British and Hessian troops while the Continental Army withdrew from Long Island. Of the 400 men involved in the delaying action, over 250 were captured or killed, Lt. Edward Prall among them. He would spend approximately 20 months as a prisoner of war.

Washington would rely on the Marylanders frequently throughout the war. He assigned them to General Gates' Southern Army, where they were decimated at Camden.

Captain Edward Prall saw some additional action after his exchange, but spent time recruiting replacements for his regiment. After the war, he returned home to take an active role in local politics.

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Arent Jansen van Naarden or Heerde? [Prall]

Early Prall records are inconsistent at best. We know from his will that he was a wheelwright. His marriage took place in Kingston in 1670. The baptisms of most of his children are recorded in the Dutch Church records.

The biggest problem in researching the family is the Dutch patronymic naming system. Arent Jansen was the son of Jan [Jan's son = Jansen]. Also the individual's town of origin or residence prior to immigration was given. [van Amsterdam = from Amsterdam]

Arent Jansen Prall appeared in records as Arent Rademaker, Arent Jansen, Arent Jansen Prast, Arent and Jansen Ramaker. Not until 1676 was the Prall surname associated with Arent Jansen, at the baptism of daughter Francyna.

There were others of the same name in the Kingston records during the time Arent was there. Sorting them out was some guess work. Arent's birth was estimated at 1645/6, so only dates post 1666/7 [21 years of age] were probably referencing my Arent.

There were others in the NY records with the Prall [Pral, Praul, Praal, Prael] surname. Marritje, Magdelena and Wolfert were believed to have been Arent's siblings.

Then there's Arent's "hometown." His marriage shows him as "van Naarden. " Marritje's hometown was given as "van Heerde," as was the hometown of others believed to be Arent's siblings.

Larry van der Laan, a Dutch born researcher working on the survivors of the 1655 Staten Island Massacre, offered the idea that the clerk copying Arent's name for the marriage spoke a different dialect and misunderstood "van Heerden," writing "van Naerden" instead.

Larry believes that Arent's family arrived on Staten Island about 1650 and was one of those surviving families. He was the son of Jan Arentsen van Heerde and Baetje Jans van Heerde and was one of eight children. Further research tended to support Larry's research and theories. In fact very early research tended to support the concept.

Quite an adventure!

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Zachariah Rhodes

Holden Rhodes' son Zachariah became a mariner. He moved from Rhode Island to Baltimore, Maryland. There he married Harriet Cunningham, also from a seafaring family. They had one child, a daughter, Ann Bathia.

Zachariah's story had been related in a brief genealogy of the family composed by Isaac Prall [my gggf's brother]. Isaac wrote that Zachariah was lost at sea aboard the "Polix & Castor." No year was given.

This time it would take a trip to Boston's NEHGS library to discover the truth to Zachariah's fate.
I had already learned that Zachariah had been lost at sea in 1815, with his brother Perry.

According to The Holden Family in America, Zachariah was captain of the schooner "Hannah" which left the port of Baltimore bound for Puerto Rico on 14 August 1815 and "was never again heard from." Brother Perry Rhodes was the first mate.

Isaac Prall undoubtedly confused the name of Zachariah's schooner with that of a ship sailed by Uncle Ralph Porter, who had married Bathia Cunningham, Harriet's sister.

Curiously enough, the Holden Genealogy cited the same source as other books that gave bits and pieces of Zachariah's story. That source, The Life and Times of Samuel Gorton, had the least amount of detail on the fate of Captain Rhodes!

Monday, December 26, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Holden Rhodes

The sea was not necessarily kind to my Rhodes family. Immigrant Zachariah Rhodes drowned. His great-great-grandson, Holden Rhodes was a prize master [officer in charge of a captured vessel]aboard a privateer sloop during the American Revolution. The privateers were essentially the American navy during the war. Holden's sloop "Satisfaction" was captured by the British in July 1778. The prisoners were sent to Forten Prison in England and were released in December of 1779.

Holden remained a mariner after the war. Four of his sons would be lost at sea.

Sunday, December 25, 2016

Christmas Post

Merry Christmas to my ancestors and my blog readers and your ancestors. [Happy Hanukah, as well, where it applies.] May the day be a pleasant and joyous one for you!

Saturday, December 24, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: John Cawby, or whatever his name was!

My Cawby family hailed from Kentucky and settled in Indiana during the mid-1800s. But before that? Determining the origin of the Cawby family was another Salt Lake adventure. I found John Cawby in North Carolina, where he settled after immigrating from Germany and apparently spending a few years in Maryland.

The trick in discovering the Cawby story was accepting the fact that Johannis [John] Cawby was recorded under well over 150 spelling variations [Cabi, Gabi, Cauvey, with a mix of an initial 'C' or 'G.']

The Cawby records ended in North Carolina about the time they began in Kentucky.  

Friday, December 23, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Wilhelm Rittenhouse

Wilhelm Rittenhouse was a native of Mulheim in what is now Germany. He learned the paper-making trade, possibly from his brother-in-law, in Arnheim, The Netherlands. In 1688, Wilhelm and his three children settled in the Philadelphia suburb of Germantown, where Rittenhouse became the first papermaker in British America. He would also become the first Mennonite Bishop in the colonies.

Thursday, December 22, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Rebecca Towne Nurse

I have never really been a big fan of wearing neckties. Hannah Wakeman may be part of the reason. [See earlier post.] Rebecca Towne Nurse may be another reason.

Rebecca was born in Yarmouth, England about 1620/1 and arrived in New England in 1640. The Townes settled in Salem, where Rebecca married Francis Nurse in 1644. The Nurses became well-respected members of the community. They moved to Salem Village in 1678.

The Nurses were involved in boundary disputes and several court cases over the next 14 years. They were also among the village citizenry who opposed Rev. Samuel Parris. Parris was backed by the influential Putnam family and their supporters.

In 1692, teenaged girls from the Parris and Putnam families feigned possession by the devil and accused neighbors - all Parris opponents - of being witches. The witch scare quickly got out of hand and several villagers were tried and convicted of witchcraft. Among those were 71 year-old Rebecca Nurse and her sisters Sarah Cloyce and Mary Esty. Rebecca and Mary would be sentenced to death and hanged.

The governor of Massachusetts Bay eventually intervened and ended the debacle. Convicted witches were pardoned and released. Those already executed were posthumously pardoned. The Nurses and others managed to get Parris removed as pastor.

Salem has become a tourist destination for those curious about the 1692 witch trials. Salem Village, where the story unfolded, is now Danvers.

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: The Tierney Family

Pansy Nell Crail was my grandmother's sister. She married James Tierney in 1907. They had two sons, James and Gene. The family lived in Shelbyville, IN, Mobile, AL and Drummerton, VT, Winston-Salem, NC and Treasure Island, FL.

Aunt Pansy lived with James and his family after her husband died. The Tierneys had a vacation house on Baden Lake near Winston-Salem. Mom and I would fly out early in the week for visits and Pop would drive out on the weekend. [He didn't fly commercial.]

Boating, swimming and fishing would fill most of the time. I did some "bar huntin" in the woods near the house as well. I had to be watched like a hawk near the water. I apparently thought I could walk across the lake. I couldn't.

Aunt Pansy was a wonderful, sweet lady with a knack for whatever card game she and her neighbor ladies played in a side room of the house. James was a big jovial, good natured guy. He and Mom were 1st cousins, but James was 13 years older. James' wife, Katherine, was from Mobile. She could make the phrase 'Mrs. Tierney' lyrical. Phyllis was James and Katherine's daughter. She was quite artistic and insisted on calling me "Ter, the Terrible Turk." Gene and his wife often visited. Their son Eddie and I hung out some, even though he was older.

Our last visit to NC was about 1967. I did get a chance to visit them after James retired to Treasure Island near St. Pete, FL. One of my college roommates and I spent part of Christmas vacation in FL in 1970. We were invited to the Tierneys for dinner one evening. My roomie was not prepared for the experience; especially when Phyllis arrived asking, "Where's Ter, the Terrible Turk?" She remembered!

Those were great times! I miss the Tierney clan.

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Jacob Crousore & Ama Jimima Smith

John Crousore's son, Jacob, was another longtime mystery and a favorite ancestor. Basically, his spouse and death were missing details. Once again, Salt Lake came to the rescue.

Online searches weren't turning up Jacob's marriage or 1820 census entry. 1850 and later census records showed his wife as Annie or Anny. Other researchers gave "Annie Crousore's" maiden name as 'Ice.' Searches did not turn up a woman by that name. Why? Because Annie Ice didn't exist!

The 1820 census indexes online had the Crousore name creatively misspelled. I knew that the family was in Ohio b 1820 and that a printed version of the index might have a "closer" spelling. It did. Finding the Crousores in Clinton Co., Ohio led to finding Jacob's marriage and that of a sister named Elizabeth - both into a family of Smiths. Smith? Oh no!

Elizabeth married John Smith in 1819. Jacob married Jimima Smith in 1822. Jimima did not ring a bell until I found a land record in Indiana that gave her full name - Ama Jimima! My great-grandmother was Ama Jemima Simmons Crail; her mother was Edith Crousore [daughter of Jacob and Jemima].

Census records that had been interpreted as Annie, Anny, or Anny I. were actually Amie, Amy or Amy J.

I was able to follow Jacob and Amy, along with extended Smith, Reel and Reeder families, from Ohio to several stops in Indiana.

Jacob and Amy seemingly vanished after 1870, no death or burial records could be found in Howard Co., IN where they had settled. Further investigation showed that the couple went to Kansas with their son William. They settled in McPherson Co. where records for Amy ended in 1875 and for Jacob in 1877. William left the county in 1878.

Monday, December 19, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: John Crousore

I can track John Crousore from his home state of Pennsylvania to Indiana. Land records have been a big help. There are two things about John I do not know, the name of his wife and the year of his death. Deeds mentioning John exclude his wife's name. He last appears in the 1850 Howard Co., IN  census. He doesn't show up in county cemetery records. Spouses have been identified for his siblings, you'd think his wife would show up too! Bleah!

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: The Crail Boys

Maybe I should say the Crail boys' parents. This has been my most infuriating brick wall. Sylvester, John and Aaron were the sons of James B. and Mary Ann [Jones] Crail. The Crails were in Shelby Co., IN in 1851 and 1854, buying and then selling two town lots in Marietta. Mary shows up in Indy in 1876 as a widow. She lives out her life residing most years with son John.

The two eldest were born in Hamilton [town or county?] Ohio; Aaron in Marion, Ohio. They may have had a brother, George, born in Miami Co., IN.

Marriage? Residence in 1840, 1850, 1860, 1870? James' year and place of death? I have no idea beyond their sons' births. The boys can be tracked from their marriage during the 1850s until their deaths.

Total mystery and frustration! That makes them favorites.

Saturday, December 17, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Catherine O'Neil

Most of what I know about Catherine comes from my mother and uncle, as well as a scattering of records [census, city directories, marriage, death, widow's pension, obit]. She was the last of the family to arrive in the country. Catherine came from County Cork, Ireland, by way of Liverpool, England, and ended up in Indianapolis. Her year of arrival depends on several factors. [1] 1852, if I found the correct passenger arrival, [2] 1851, 1853 or 1854 depending upon the accuracy of the census, [3] 1852, 1853 or 1854 depending on whether she was born in 1833 or 1834.

Mom and Uncle Mutt told me the family celebrated her 100th birthday. Catherine died during the late summer of 1934 and was born in December, so 1833 would have been her year of birth. Catherine's death certificate shows her age as 99, so born in 1834, but 1833 is given as her year of birth. The obit says she was 99. Census records are inconsistent. Catherine was about 5 years older than her husband, so she fibbed about her age.

Being that most of my details about her life come from family, I don't know how accurate the memories are. For certain, she raised 6 young children on her own after husband Aaron Crail died in 1868 and outlived 4 of them.

Friday, December 16, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: John Simmons, Sr.

John Simmons was an English born tavern-keeper in New York City in the years preceding and following the American Revolution. The tavern was located at the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets. John got the nickname of "Wall-Street John." He was reportedly the biggest man in the colony - by weight - topping out at over 400 pounds. John frequently sat outside the tavern greeting customers. Upon his death, part of the door frame had to be removed in order to get John's body out of the tavern. The city hall, across the street, became Federal Hall when NYC became the capital. Washington's inauguration could be viewed from the tavern. The 1st mayor of NYC was sworn in at the tavern. Samuel Fraunces, who operated the tavern where Washington bid farewell to his officers, was John's brother-in-law.

Thursday, December 15, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Hannah Wakeman

Joanna "Hannah" Wakeman Hackleton Whittaker is an absolute favorite and should probably be a candidate for a family black sheep. She was born about 1638 in Hartford, CT. Hannah married Francis Hackleton, by whom she had a son and daughter. Hackleton was away on business when Hannah had an affair with Henry Fraser or Frost. She became pregnant and lost the child, whom Hannah delivered by herself. Hannah was subsequently charged with adultery and murder. She made some rather uncomplimentary comments to the judge and was charged with blasphemy. Mrs. Hackleton was sentenced to death, but the penalty was reduced to a year in jail, 30 lashes and standing on the gallows for an hour with a rope around her neck.

Hannah left her son with her mother and step-father and took her daughter to New York, where she was banished from town for not having a residence permit. Other adventures involved witchcraft accusations.

She was hired by ex-British soldier, Edward Whittaker, to work at his tavern. Hannah's sharp tongue and Edward's temper were a bad mix. The were frequently in court, with Whittaker threatening to throw mother and daughter out into the cold.

Whittaker got Hannah pregnant and, once again the baby died. The court ordered Whittaker to take care of her or else. The couple married [legal or common law?] and had two sons.

Hannah had to be very charismatic, a real beauty or both to survive all of the trials and tribulations!

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Sylvanus & Harriet Simmons

This couple is one of my great mysteries. Sylvanus was farming in Indiana until at least the early 1860s, but became an engineer for a steamboat company later in the decade. He moved back and forth between Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky for 30-odd years.

Sylvanus married in 1845 to Catherine Van Liew. They had two daughters, Sarah A. and Margaret J. This was the family in 1850. By 1860, Sylvanus' household included wife Henrietta and daughters Henrietta and Ada. The ages of all three females were a match for years Catherine, Sarah and Margaret by age. Henrietta also appeared as Harriet in records, no surname was ever given.

Ada Simmons [Edward] Bateman's 1930 death certificate gave her mother's name as Katherine van Loo. Henrietta's obituary stated that she died at the Bateman house.

All evidence points to Herietta, Harriet and Catherine being the same person. Likewise, Sarah and Henrietta were one and the same as were Margaret and Ada.

The question? Why did Catherine Van Liew Simmons become Henrietta/Hariret and why did Sarah become Henrietta and Margaret, Ada?

Maybe the Van Liews didn't approve of the marriage. Still, Sylvanus kept his name, although he was regularly recorded as S. or S.S. Simmons.

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Edmund Lockwood

Edmund qualifies under "misdirected research." For decades it was believed that Edmund's brother, Robert was the chief progenitor of the American Lockwoods. Harriet Woodbury Hodge's book on the descendants of Edmund unraveled the mess created by the earlier Lockwood book.

Monday, December 12, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Dolly Jennison Simmons

Although I suspected that Dolly Jennison was the mother of James Morris Simmons when I went to research the Simmons clan in Salt Lake, I needed proof. In the Jennison Family book there was a letter Dolly had written to one of her sisters about the family in 1860. The letter named several of the children, including Morris. Eureka! I had the proof I needed and was able to add several generations of Jennisons and their allied family.

Sunday, December 11, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: John Faucett

John was born in Augusta Co., VA [later Greenbrier Co.] in 1751. He was taken captive by Indians [probably Shawnee] during the French and Indian War and later traded back for a horse. He served as a "spy and ranger" [scout and guide] in the Ohio, northern Virginia and western Pennsylvania frontier during the Revolution. After the war, John farmed in the Uniontown, PA region. The new lands in Ohio called and John headed west. Son Joseph was born on an Ohio River flatboat in 1798. The Faucetts settled in what became Warren Co., OH. Wanderlust hit John again at age 73. Faucett moved his family [sons, daughters, in-laws] to central Indiana in 1824. Two tracts were purchased, one in Marion and one in Hendricks Co. John lived out his life on the western Marion Co. farmstead, dying at age 86 in 1838. What a life!!!

Saturday, December 10, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Roger Williams

Short and sweet. Reverand Roger Williams opposed the religious intolerance of Massachusetts and fled south to establish the religiously tolerant colony of Providence Plantation, which would join other settlements to become Rhode Island.

Friday, December 9, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Gulley & Cawby

I discussed the exploits of William Simmons during the War of 1812 a few weeks back. Today I look at two other veterans of that war: Willis Gulley and Martin Cawby. Thanks to Willis's pension, I was able to put together the service of both. Martin's widow filed for a pension, but the paperwork was misfiled.

Both men served in the same Kentucky Regiment. The Regiment was assigned to the campaign that would invade Canada. They marched from Georgetown, KY to Urbana, OH. There word came that the war had ended. The Kentuckians packed up and returned home.

Thursday, December 8, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Thomas Sumter

Returning to the Revolutionary War era. Thomas Land married Anna Sumter. Anna's brother became a renowned partisan hero in the South during the war. General Thomas Sumter, "the Gamecock," was one of the most famous partisan leaders in the Carolinas along with Francis Marion [Swamp Fox] and Andrew Pickens. Sumter and the other guerilla leaders attacked British supply trains and troops then disappeared into the local swamps or other hideouts. The Gamecock often drew the wrath of Nathanael Greene due to his tendency to fight when he wanted, not always when Greene wanted. Still Sumter and the others joined Gen. Greene's troops from time to time in battle against Cornwallis. Sumter served in Congress after the war and died at 98 in 1832.

Wednesday, December 7, 2016

December 7th, 1941

A break from the ancestral posts today.

Today marks the 75th anniversary of the Japanese attack on the US Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Take time to honor those servicemen and women who lost their lives that morning and those who served at Pearl, in Europe, the Pacific or on the home front during the rest of WWII.

Journalist Tom Brokaw labeled them "The Greatest Generation." Along with naval, air and land forces from our allies, men and women working behind the scenes and on the frontlines in military intelligence, and the partisan fighters in Europe and Asia [especially the Philippines] they defeated Fascism and Imperialism.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Seth Mahurin?

The Mahurin family was either from Ulster [Northern Ireland] or Scotland. Hugh Mahurin arrived in Massachusetts about 1690-91. One of his sons was Ebenezer. All was well until Ebenezer's son Seth got to thinking too much. Rumor had it that a college professor was at the root of the problem, but I investigated that aspect of the rumor and reached a dead end. Someone supposedly suggested that 'Mahurin' didn't sound American enough - before the country became the USA? Seth proceeded to drop the 'Ma' and adopt Hurin or Huron for his surname. A brother objected because Hurin/Huron was an Indian tribe. So, my branch of the family became Hurin.

Monday, December 5, 2016

Favorite Ancestor: Sarah Douglas

When my quest for the Mayflower link knocked a few families out of the tree, one of the links I hated to loose was the Douglas family. Those Scottish roots rounded out the British Isles heritage [England, Wales, Ireland & Scotland.] Further research into the family of Elizabeth Turner showed that her grandmother was Sarah Douglas, daughter of Scotsman William Douglas Sr. Her brother William had been believed to be my direct ancestor - now he was a collateral ancestor. The Douglas branch remained on the tree!

Sunday, December 4, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: William Brewster

Elder Brewster has to be included! My Mayflower ancestor! Part of the inclusion is because of the journey to discover that he was an ancestor. A marriage record was the key. I have discussed that in the Joshua Hempstead diary post a few weeks ago. Elizabeth Dart married John Hazen in 1726. The catch was that Elizabeth was a Dart by marriage, not birth. Elizabeth Turner was Brewster's descendant. I lost a handful of ancestral families in uncovering Elizabeth, but gained another handful!

Saturday, December 3, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Gov. Thomas Prence

Prence was a longtime governor of the Plymouth Colony. For whatever reason, he had an intense dislike for Quakers. So, of course, one of his daughters, Elizabeth, married a Quaker - Arthur Howland, Jr. The Howland family was a thorn in the side of the governor. Papa even had his daughter jailed for not paying church tithes. One happy family!

Friday, December 2, 2016

Favorite Ancestors: Arnold & Greene

My research has led to a great appreciation for the Revolutionary War era. This takes me to two of my favorite cousins:

Nathanael Greene: Quartermaster General of Washington's Army. He was one of Washington's top and favorite generals. Greene was assigned to command the Southern campaign after Horatio Gates was defeated at Camden, SC. [Gates was the choice of Congress; Greene was Washington's choice.]
He kept Cornwallis off his game and managed to keep an army in the field until Yorktown.

Benedict Arnold: He was one of Washington's most courageous and effective generals until he agreed to sell the plans to West Point to the British. His own vanity was his worst enemy. Had Arnold been killed at Saratoga instead of being seriously wounded, he would have been one of America's greatest heroes.

Thursday, December 1, 2016

Some of my Favorite Ancestors

My next several posts will deal with favorite ancestors. The selection is based on accomplishments, research issues, unusual stories and the like.

Up first, not one person, but one group: the Quakers

I have several Quaker ancestors. Most arrived and settled in Pennsylvania. From Pennsylvania they migrated to Maryland and then to Virginia. Some became leaders in the Society of Friends, serving as preachers. Others operated inns or owned large tracts of land. Gradually, my director ancestors were excommunicated for having married contrary to discipline. One family settled in Plymouth and faced the prejudice of many of their neighbors.