Friday, September 30, 2016
Engineer:  designed ships;  maintained engines
Pilot: navigated ships/boats on waterways
Boatswain: officer in charge of sails and rigging
Lodeman: ship or boat pilot
Master mariner: commander of ship
Ship master: owner or commander of ship
Steersman: helmsman on ship
Ballast heaver: loaded ballast into empty holds of ships
Bargeman, Barkman: worked on, owned or operated a barge
Wharfinger: owned or managed wharf
Thursday, September 29, 2016
Anchor smith: made anchors
Armourer: made metal plates for sides of ships
Caulker: made boats watertight by caulking seams
Jack: young sailor
Landsman: inexperienced sailor
Shipwright: carpenter skilled in building and designing ships, boats
Boarding officer: inspected ships before they entered port
Chanty man: led singing on board ship
Stevedore: overseer or laborer involved with the loading and unloading of cargo of merchant vessels
Longshoreman: worked on the waterfront loading and unloading ships
Wednesday, September 28, 2016
Wainwright: built, repaired wagons
Wagoner: drove wagons or carts
Step Boy: helped passengers in and out of carriages, coaches
Hostler / Ostler: stableman or groom
Muleskinner / Muleteer: mule driver
Horse coper: horse dealer or breeder
Horse capper: dealer in worthless horses
Henchman: horseman, groom
Hackney man: rented horses, carriages
Hack driver: driver of a taxi, carriage for hire
Cartwright: made carts, wagons
Cart wheeler: made wheels for carts, wagons
Carter: wagoner, stable headman
Cabbie: driver of small horse drawn passenger vehicle
Axel tree maker: made axels for wagons, carriages and carts
Drayman: drove low flatbed wagon without sides [primarily became brewery wagons]
Teamster: driver of wagons hauling cargo
Bullwacker: oxen driver
Chaise maker: made wicker carts
Coachman: coach driver
Tuesday, September 27, 2016
Whit cooper: made tin barrels
Turner: worked with a lathe
Spallier: tin works laborer
Smelter: worker in a smelter melting down ores
Iron monger: dealer in iron or hardware
Ironmaster: owner or manager of an iron foundry
Brass founder: cast brass
Boiler plater: made rolled iron plate for making boilers for steam engines
Boilermaker: attends Purdue University [just kidding!] -worked with metal in an industrial setting
Bellows maker: made bellows for a blacksmith
Monday, September 26, 2016
Smith: worked with metal
Blacksmith, Vulcan, Forger, Farrier: made and repaired items made of metal, generally iron
Tinsmith, Brightsmith: worked with tin
Ironsmith, Ferrier: worked with iron
Goldsmith, Redsmith, Orfever: worked with gold; goldsmith also dealt in gold items
Coppersmith, Greensmith: worked with copper, latten
Silversmith: worked with silver
Whitesmith: maker of tin utensils; primarily dairy utensils
Pan Smith: made pans
Anvil smith: made anvils
Bell founder: cast bells
Sunday, September 25, 2016
Acre man, Ackerman, Earer, Malender, Husbandman, Plowman, Tillman, Planter, Granger: farmer
Yeoman: farmer who owns his own land
Agriculturalist: involved with land cultivation or animal husbandry
Tobacconist: tobacco farmer
Curer: cured tobacco
Sharecropper: farmed someone else's land and split the crop with the owner
Gelder: castrated farm animals
Cowherd: cow keeper or tender
Drover: driver of sheep or cattle
Topsman: foreman or head cattle driver
Shearer: cut wool from sheep
Wool grower: sheep farmer
Gatward: goat keeper
Gooseherd: herder of gesse
Hoggard: pig drover
Swineherder: pig keeper
Pinder: caught and confined stray animals
Saturday, September 24, 2016
Blaxter/Bleacher: bleacher cloth or wood pulp for paper in a Bleachery
Caffler or Rag picker: collected rags
Hotpresser: pressed paper between hot glazing sheets to smooth or glaze it
Layer: paper mill worker at a particular process
Rag cutter: cut rags into pieces for papermaking
Vatman: put paper pulp into moulds
Friday, September 23, 2016
Beetler: ran beetling machine that embossed [put the shine on] textiles
Card master: person in charge of the carding room
Cloth looker: inspected cloth
Beamer: drew yarn through or onto the loom beam
Baler: baled wool or cotton goods
Cambric maker: made fine cotton/linen fabric
Camlet maker: made cloth for petticoats and cloaks
Camlet merchant: sold same
Thursday, September 22, 2016
Galloon maker: made decorative woven trim, usually gold or silver, used in military or police uniforms, drapery, etc. [trim called galloon]
Friezer: friezed [embroidered] cloth with gold/silver trim
Fuller: fulled [cleaned] cloth for spinning or weaving
Fustian cutter: lifted/cut thread to make corduroy [old name - fustian]
Delaine worker: made light all-wool cloth of plain weave,; often printed
Doffer: replaced yarn bobbins
Draper: dealer in fabrics
Brogger: wool merchant
Carder: combed wool or cotton
Wednesday, September 21, 2016
Mordant maker: made 'mordant', a chemical used in fixing dye in cloth
Linen draper: sold linens, flannels, bedding, calicos, gloves, ribbons, scarves, etc.
Lace runner: embroidered lace
Lace master/mistress: lace worker
Hair weaver: weaver of horse hair cloth
Hayrester: works with horse hair
Jersey comber: combed Jersey wool before spinning
Kempster: combed wool or cotton
Hooker: laid out fabric in uniform folds in required lengths
Tuesday, September 20, 2016
Stuff weaver: weaver of coarse cloth [stuff; worsted]
Sprig maker: weaver of fine lace sprigs [appliques]
Winder: transferred yarn onto bobbins/perns, ready for weaving
Windster: silk weaver
Twister: twisted yarn into thread
Tapiter: weaver of tapestry
Silkman: engaged in manufacture or sale of silk
Wool stapler: dealer in wool
Slubber: prepared cotton for spinning
Wool comber: combed, separated fiber for spinning
Monday, September 19, 2016
Mercer: cloth seller
Spinner: spun yarn to make cloth
Tucker: cleaned cloth goods
Warper: set up thread on looms
Weaver: operates loom to make cloth
Scutcher: beat flax to extract linen fibers
Walker: walked over cloth after weaving & wetting to clean & thicken it
Tenter: stretched cloth on a frame to dry
Reeler: organized yarn on bobbins & arranged them above the machines
Sunday, September 18, 2016
teamster: Today one associates a teamster with unions. Jimmy Hoffa, etc. Early on a teamster drove a wagon.
hooker: Not what you think! A hooker was a person involved in the rug making process.
I will put together a list of occupations and define them. If I miss any really unusual ones, let me know!
I'm going to start with the weaving industry. Many of us have Huguenot ancestors. Those Huguenots who came from cities tended to work in the weaving industry. There are some gems!
Time to compile the lists!
Saturday, September 17, 2016
Although not much is known of the Keeling ancestors of Thomas, several of the confirmed Keeling children bear names common to Anne's family: Thomas [found in both lines], Adam [Anne's uncle], Edward [another uncle], Thorowgood [family surname], Anne [herself, grandmother], Frances [mother], and Elizabeth [maternal grandmother].
Thomas Thorowgood had the following child:
3 i. John Thorowgood, born ca 1500, Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England; died ca 1560, Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England.
3. John Thorowgood1–2 (Thomas-2, John-1) was born circa 1500 in Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England.1–2 He died circa 1560 at the age of 60 in Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England.1
John Thorowgood had the following child:
4 i. John Thorowgood, born ca 1530, Felsted, Essex, England; married Anne Lucken, ca 1560, Grimston, Norfolk, England; died ca 1600, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
4. John Thorowgood1–2 (John-3, Thomas-2, John-1) was born circa 1530 in Felsted, Essex, England.1–2 He died circa 1600 at the age of 70 in Norwich, Norfolk, England.1
John Thorowgood and Anne Lucken were married circa 1560 in Grimston, Norfolk, England.1–2 Anne Lucken1, daughter of Thomas Lucken, was born circa 1534 in Essex, England.1 She died circa 1596 at the age of 62 in Essex, England.1
5 i. William Thorowgood, born ca 1560, Grimston, Norfolk, England; married Anne Edwards, ca 1585, England; died 16 May 1635, Felstead, Essex, England.
William married three times. Anne Edwards, whom he married by 1585, was the mother of his nine children.He married widow Mary Dodge after 1620 and widow Alice Holbeck about 1625.
Vicar William Thorowgood died 16 May 1635 in Felstead.
William and Anne Edwards had nine children:
 John: [see next]
 Thomas of Grimston: B.A. from Queen's College, Cambridge, 1613-14; M.A., 1617; B.D., 1624; Rector of Little Massingham, 1620; of Grimston, 1625; one of the assembly of Devines; teice Clerk of the Convocation.
 Edmund of Markham: married Frances, daughter of Edward Smith of Chelston Temple, Essex.
 Mordaunt: died at Seige of Breda.
 Adam: b. 1602/3; went to Virginia in 1621; returned to England and married Sarah Offley in London on 18 July; Justice of the Peace; member of the Council of Virginia; acquired over 1000 acres in Virginia; ship's captain; d. 1640.
 Frances: married Robert Griffith of Wales.
 Robert: mayor and captain in King's Lynn, Norfolk; married Anne, daughter of Edward Hawke of Norfolk.
John was Secretary to the Earl of Pembrooke. He was inservice to the Duke of Buckingham, Gentleman Petitioner to King Chsrles I. Thorowgood was knighted by Charles I at his coronationation in Scotland in 1630. Sir John took part in the Civil War on the side of Parliament. He was a member of the Privy Council under Charles II. John resided at Kensington, Middlesex.
He married Frances, daughter of Thomas Meautis, Esquire, of West Ham, Essex before 1613.
John was named overseer of his brother Adam's will dated 17 February 1639/40. Adam became a prominent settler in Lynnhaven Parish, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia after serving as an indentured servant. He would go on to transprt 105 persons to Virginia and amass land holdings of over 5000 acres thanks to those 105 headrights. Among those whom he transported to Virginia was Thomas Keeling, the future husband of his niece Anne.
Sir John Thorowgood died in 1664.
7. Ann Thorowgood4–5 (John-6, William-5, John-4, John-3, Thomas-2, John-1) was born circa 1613 in Hertfordshire, England.6 She died circa 16 Jan 1687 at the age of 74 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.4–5 Ann's identity and parentage is somewhat muddled. Most sources, primarily undocumented, give her maiden name as Thorowgood. The mystery then becomes three-fold:
(1) Was she the brother of prominent Lynn Haven settler Adam Thorowgood [1602-1640] and the daughter of William Thorowgood [1560-1625] and one of his three wives, Anne Edwards, Mary Dodge or Alice Holbeck?
(2) Was she the daughter of Adam Thorowgood [1602-1640] and Sarah Offley?
(3) Was she the daughter of one of Adam's elder brothers, John, Thomas, Edmund, Mordaunt or William?
In her 1974 publication The 17th Century Families of John Martin & Thomas Keeling," Alice Granbery Walter makes the claim that Ann's maiden name was as of yet unknown. She also notes that the names of the Keeling children [Adam, Thorowgood, Edward, Elizabeth, Sarah, Frances and John were all common to Thorowgood families.] Adam Thorowgood had convinced Thomas Keeling to join in the settlement in Lowe Norfolk.
There is also the issue of her date of marriage. 1630, 1634 and 1637 are the primary dates offered. If Ann was born in 1618, she would have been 12 in 1630; 16 in 1634 and 19 in 1637. The latter is the most reasonable. Ann and William are recorded with children born as early as 1630 and 1635.
Most sources, again, undocumented, give Ann's birth about 1618. A few give her birth as about 1608. 1608 would allow for a marriage in 1630 [age 22]. However, Ann would have been 46 when her youngest was born in 1654.
There is also a christening date of 27 February 1613 in Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire, England for an Anne Thorowgood, daughter of John Thorowgood. [England Select Births & Christenings 1530-1975; Familysearch.org]
Other entries for Anne Thorowgood [Thorogood, Thoroughgood]:
6 Feb 1602 [father - Abraham];
12 Feb 1614 [father - Abraham]; both Sawbridgeworth.
Other Hertfordshire entries:
7 Oct 1604 Reed [father - Phillip];
24 Mar 1604 Ware [father - John];
11 Nov 1604 Barkway [father - John];
28 Dec 1618 Reed [father - Jonathan]
11 Aug 1611 Crostwick, Norfolk [parents - Edward & Bridgett]
A birth date just prior to February 1613, would make Anne about 21 in 1634, the predominant year of marriage. This would make much more sense that a birth about 1618.
Anne married three times. The first was to Thomas Keeling, about 1634/35 in England. Her second was to William Jermy, about 1665. Jermy died 15 January 1666. Anne's final marriage was to Robert Bray, after 1666. Anne died in 1687.
Following his term of indenture, Keeling returned to England. He married Anne Thorowgood, daughter of Sir John Thorowgood and Frances Meauris. John was Adam Thorowgood's elder brother. The Keelings returned to Virginia in 1634 on the John and Dorothy, with Adam Thorowgood the ship's captain.
Thomas Keeling received two headrights of 100 acres on the Back River in Elizabeth City Co. on 18 November 1635. (Elizabeth City Co. originated as Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, from which New Norfolk Co. was formed in 1636, and became Upper and Lower Norfolk Counties the following year.) He was granted 200 acres on 9 November 1643 for transporting four people. The tract was near Francis Land's plantation. This tract was transferred to William Shipp in 1647. On 25 October 1651, Keeling was granted 700 acres near the head of the main branch of the Lynn Haven River for transporting 14 people.
In a deposition taken in 1637, Thomas gave his age as 24 "or thereabouts." He gave his age as 34 "or thereabouts" in 1642. These depositions would place his birth between 1808 and 1813. Similarly, Anne's age was given as 22 in 1640 [born about 1618].
Thomas was a vestryman in 1640. He was appointed County Lieutenant for Lower Norfolk in 1659.
Thomas was a witness at the 15 December 1659 trial of Ann Godby, who accused Nico Robinson's wife of being a witch. Godby was ordered to pay the accused 300 pounds of tobacco, a cask of wine and assessed court costs. [Godby had been flogged for defamation in 1648 and filed a complaint in 1650.]
Keeling's will was written on 1 October 1664 and proved on 17 October 1665.
Estimates on the birth of the Keeling children begin as early as 1628. All of the children are shown as being born in Virginia. The fact that Thomas returned to England, unmarried, in 1634 excludes birth estimates prior to 1635. Thomas received his 1635 headright of 100 acres for the transport of two persons - himself and his new bride. The earliest birth? Perhaps shortly after the Keelings arrived in Virginia.
Anne's 1666 will [proved 1689] named the following children: Alexander, Sarah [Henry] Woodhouse, Ann [John] Oakham, Frances [Renatus] Land, Elizabeth, Adam, Thorowgood and Edward.
In a 1666 deed, Ann mentioned her son Edward, heir to "his brother" Thomas, deceased.
Elizabeth Keeling's will [30 Oct 1670 - Apr 1671] named her brothers Alexander and Thorowgood.
Adam Keeling's will [2 Apr - 10 Dec 1683] named brother Alexander and brother-in-law Anthony Lawson [widower of sister Anne].
In a deed dated 18 March 1683, Ann Bray mentions her son Edward and Thomas who had been dead for some years.
Confirmed from these documents are the following children of Thomas and Anne: Alexander, Sarah Woodhouse, Ann Oakham, Frances Land, Elizabeth, Adam, Edward and Thomas.
Children named in other sources were Jane, John and Leonard
Jane's birth is given c1635 and death c1654. If she was a daughter of Thomas and Anne, the 1654 death would explain her omission from later records.
John is shown as the youngest, born c1654 and died 1 July 1701. If he belongs to this family, John should have been named in several of the documents.
Leonard is the most problematic. His birth is generally shown as 1628-1632, but as late as 1636. His birthplace is given as Jamestown, James City, VA. Leonard died c1689 in New Kent Co. or Davidson Co., TN (which did not yet exist!) He married Naomi/Nancy Ferguson. The Keeling family seems to have remained in Lower Norfolk/Princess Anne Co.
Ann Thorowgood and William Jermy were married circa 1665 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 William Jermy5 died on 23 Apr 1666–15 Jan 1666/7 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5
Friday, September 16, 2016
Little solid evidence exists for the Keeling side of the family. Thomas' parents were believe to be named John and Alice.
Anne's family offers a much richer selection to choose from. [The Thorowgood and Meautis families should be ready to post soon.]
The confirmed children of Thomas and Anne and who they might have been named for:
 Anne: Anne herself, as well as her paternal grandmother [Anne Edwards].
 Thomas: His father.
 Adam: Anne's uncle, who was a neighbor in Virginia and captain of the ship that brought them to the colony.
 Edward: Anne had an uncle Edward.
 Alexander: ?? [maybe a Keeling name.]
 Sarah: ?? [maybe a Keeling name.]
 Frances: Anne's mother [Frances Meautis].
 Thorowgood: Anne's family surname.
 Elizabeth: possibly Anne's maternal grandmother [Elizabeth].
There were three children named in several trees, but not confirmed in documents:
 Leonard: unknown
 Jane: unknown
 John: Ann's father and Thomas' father.
Examining the names of the kids is not solid evidence, but it is a tool!
Thursday, September 15, 2016
My apologies for the choppy page breaks and editing. The article did not copywell from the PDF file.
Jane's birth is given c1635 and death c1654. If she was a daughter of Thomas and Anne, the 1654 death would explain her
had convinced Thomas Keeling to j oin in the settlement in Lowe Norf olk.
11 Aug 1611 Crostwick, Norfolk [parents - Edward & Bridgett]
ii. Thomas Keeling was born circa 1637 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.4–5 He died circa
4 v. Alexander Keeling, born ca 1642, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Grace Martin,
7 viii. Thorowgood Keeling, born ca 1648, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Lucy Hall,
Anne died before 15 August 1672.
Anne Keeling and John Martin2 were married circa 1665 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 John Martin2
Sarah Keeling and Henry Woodhouse were married circa 1662 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 Henry
7. Thorowgood Keeling5 (Thomas-1) was born circa 1648 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 He died on 31 Mar1679–15 Aug 1679 at the age of 31 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.5 Thorowgood was named in his sister