My apologies for the choppy page breaks and editing. The article did not copywell from the PDF file.
1. Thomas Keeling1 was born circa 1608 in Worcestershire, England.1 He died on 1 Oct 1664–17 Oct 1664 at the age of 56
in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.1 Thomas Keeling was born about 1608 in Worcestershire, England. His
parents are believed to be John Keeling [1577 or 1582 - 1642] and Alice Waterhouse [c1586 - 1650]. Thomas first arrived in
Virginia in 1628 on the Hopewell as one of Adam Thorowgood's indentured servants.
Following his term of indenture, Keeling returned to England. He married Anne Thorowgood, daughter of Sir John
Thorowgood and Frances Meauris. John was Adam Thorowgood's elder brother. The Keelings returned to Virginia in 1634
on the John and Dorothy, with Adam Thorowgood the ship's captain.
Thomas Keeling received two headrights of 100 acres on the Back River in Elizabeth City Co. on 18 November 1635.
(Elizabeth City Co. originated as Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, f rom which New Norf olk Co. was f ormed in 1636, and
became Upper and Lower Norf olk Counties the f ollowing year.) He was granted 200 acres on 9 November 1643 for
transporting four people. The tract was near Francis Land's plantation. This tract was transferred to William Shipp in 1647.
On 25 October 1651, Keeling was granted 700 acres near the head of the main branch of the Lynn Haven River for
transporting 14 people.
In a deposition taken in 1637, Thomas gave his age as 24 "or thereabouts." He gave his age as 34 "or thereabouts" in 1642.
These depositions would place his birth between 1808 and 1813. Similarly, Anne's age was given as 22 in 1640 [born about 1618.]
Thomas was a vestryman in 1640. He was appointed County Lieutenant for Lower Norfolk in 1659.
Thomas was a witness at the 15 December 1659 trial of Ann Godby, who accused Nico Robinson's wife of being a witch.
Godby was ordered to pay the accused 300 pounds of tobacco, a cask of wine and assessed court costs. [Godby had been
flogged for defamation in 1648 and filed a complaint in 1650.]
Keeling's will was written on 1 October 1664 and proved on 17 October 1665.
Estimates on the birth of the Keeling children begin as early as 1628. All of the children are shown as being born in Virginia.
The fact that Thomas returned to England, unmarried, in 1634 excludes birth estimates prior to 1635. Thomas received his
1635 headright of 100 acres for the transport of two persons - himself and his new bride. The earliest birth? Perhaps shortly after the Keelings arrived in Virginia.
Anne's 1666 will [proved 1689] named the following children: Alexander, Sarah [Henry] Woodhouse, Ann [John] Oakham, Frances [Renatus] Land, Elizabeth, Adam, Thorowgood and Edward.
In a 1666 deed, Ann mentioned her son Edward, heir to "his brother" Thomas, deceased.
Elizabeth Keeling's will [30 Oct 1670 - Apr 1671] named her brothers Alexander and Thorowgood.
Adam Keeling's will [2 Apr - 10 Dec 1683] named brother Alexander and brother-in-law Anthony Lawson [widower of
In a deed dated 18 March 1683, Ann Bray mentions her son Edward and Thomas who had been dead for some years.
Confirmed from these documents are the following children of Thomas and Anne: Alexander, Sarah Woodhouse, Ann
Oakham, Frances Land, Elizabeth, Adam, Edward and Thomas.
Children named in other sources were Jane, John and Leonard.
Jane's birth is given c1635 and death c1654. If she was a daughter of Thomas and Anne, the 1654 death would explain her
omission from later records.
John is shown as the youngest, born c1654 and died 1 July 1701. If he belongs to this family, John should have been named in several of the documents.
Leonard is the most problematic. His birth is generally shown as 1628-1632, but as late as 1636. His birthplace is given as
Jamestown, James City, VA. Leonard died c1689 in New Kent Co. or Davidson Co., TN (which did not yet exist!) He
married Naomi/Nancy Ferguson. The Keeling family seems to have remained in Lower Norfolk/Princess Anne Co.
Thomas Keeling and Ann Thorowgood were married circa 1634–1635 in England.1 Ann Thorowgood1–2 was born circa
1613 in Hertfordshire, England.3 She died circa 16 Jan 1687 at the age of 74 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British
America.1–2 Ann's identity and parentage is somewhat muddled. Most sources, primarily undocumented, give her maiden
name as Thorowgood. The mystery then becomes three-fold:
(1) Was she the brother of prominent Lynn Haven settler Adam Thorowgood [1602-1640] and the daughter of William
Thorowgood [1560-1625] and one of his three wives, Anne Edwards, Mary Dauge or Alice Holbeck?
(2) Was she the daughter of Adam Thorowgood [1602-1640] and Sarah Offley?
(3) Was she the daughter of one of Adam's elder brothers, John, Thomas, Edmund, Mordaunt or William?
In her 1974 publication The 17th Century Families of John Martin & Thomas Keeling," Alice Granbery Walter makes the
claim that Ann's maiden name was as of yet unknown. She also notes that the names of the Keeling children [Adam,
Thorowgood, Edward, Elizabeth, Sarah, Frances and John were all common to Thorowgood f amilies.] Adam Thorowgood
had convinced Thomas Keeling to j oin in the settlement in Lowe Norf olk.
had convinced Thomas Keeling to j oin in the settlement in Lowe Norf olk.
There is also the issue of her date of marriage. 1630, 1634 and 1637 are the primary dates offered. If Ann was born in 1618,
she would have been 12 in 1630; 16 in 1634 and 19 in 1637. The latter is the most reasonable. Ann and William are recorded
with children born as early as 1630 and 1635.
Most sources, again, undocumented, give Ann's birth about 1618. A few give her birth as about 1608. 1608 would allow for a marriage in 1630 [age 22]. However Ann would have been 46 when her youngest was born in 1654.
There is also a christening date of 27 February 1613 in Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire, England for an Anne Thorowgood,
daughter of John Thorowgood. [England Select Births & Christenings 1530-1975; Familysearch.org]
Other entries for Anne Thorowgood [Thorogood, Thoroughgood]:
6 Feb 1602 [father - Abraham];
12 Feb 1614 [father - Abraham]; both Sawbridgeworth.
Other Hertfordshire entries:
7 Oct 1604 Reed [father - Phillip];
24 Mar 1604 Ware [father - John];
11 Nov 1604 Barkway [father - John];
28 Dec 1618 Reed [father - Jonathan]
11 Aug 1611 Crostwick, Norfolk [parents - Edward & Bridgett]
A birth date just prior to February 1613, would make Anne about 21 in 1634, the predominant year of marriage. This would
make much more sense that a birth about 1618.
Anne married three times. The first was to Thomas Keeling, about 1634/35 in England. Her second was to William Jermy,
about 1665. Jermy died 15 January 1666. Anne's final marriage was to Robert Bray, after 1666. Anne died in 1687.
Thomas Keeling and Ann Thorowgood had the following children:
2 i. Anne Keeling, born ca 1636–1650, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married John Martin,
ca 1665, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married John Oakham, 15 Oct 1666, Lower
Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Lt. Col. Anthony Lawson, bef 16 Feb 1670/1, Princess
Anne, Virginia, British America; died bef 15 Aug 1672, Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.
ii. Thomas Keeling was born circa 1637 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.4–5 He died circa
25 May 1666 at the age of 29 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.4–5
3 iii. Adam Keeling, born ca 1638/9, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Ann Martin, ca
1663, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; died ca Dec 1683, Princess Anne, Virginia, British
iv. Edward Keeling6 was born circa 1640 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5–6 He died
before Mar 1683 at the age of 43 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.5–6 In a deed dated 18
March 1683, Anne [Keeling] Bray refers to her sons Thomas and Edward, "who have been some years
dead." Edward was alive in 1666, when his mother wrote her will.
4 v. Alexander Keeling, born ca 1642, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Grace Martin,
10 May 1677, Princess Anne, Virginia, British America; died 3 May 1704, Princess Anne, Virginia,
5 vi. Sarah Keeling, born ca 1644, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Henry
Woodhouse, ca 1662, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; died bef 29 Jan 1686/7, Lower
Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.
6 vii. Frances Keeling, born ca 1646, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Renatus Land
Sr., ca 1665, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; died ca 1694, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia,
7 viii. Thorowgood Keeling, born ca 1648, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; married Lucy Hall,
ca 1670, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America; died 31 Mar 1679–15 Aug 1679, Princess Anne,
Virginia, British America.
ix. Elizabeth Keeling4 was born circa 1652 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.4 She died on
30 Oct 1670–Apr 1671 at the age of 18 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.4 Elizabeth made her
will on 10 October 1670. It was probated in April 1671. She named her brothers Alexander and Thorowgood.
before 15 Aug 1672 at the age of 36 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.2,6 Anne Keeling's birth is estimated as 1630
in several sources [undocumented]. It is more likely that she was born during the late 1630s to mid-1640s. She married for
the first time about 1665 to twice widowed John Martin, who was born about 1616 and died in 1666.
Ann was step-mother to three children, John Jr. [under age in 1666, 1668 and 1671; probably born early 1650s], Grace
[probably born late 1650s] and Anne [born c1663], who married her brother Adam Keeling. She and John had one son, Joel, born in 1665/6.
Adam Keeling referred to his "wife's brother and my nephew, Joel Martin in a 16 December 1680 deed. Later [13 November
1693], Adam Keeling Jr. sold land to his uncle Alexander Keeling. This land had been owned by John Martin Sr. and was
deeded to his eldest son John Jr., who died intestate. The land then went to Adam's mother, Anne [Martin] Keeling, then wife
of John Richason, who gave the land to Adam.
Anne died before 15 August 1672.
Anne Keeling and John Martin2 were married circa 1665 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 John Martin2
was born circa 1616 in England.2 He died circa 4 May 1666 at the age of 50 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British
America.2 John Martin was probably born about 1616 in England. His date of his arrival in Virginia is unclear.
A John Martin of St. Ives, Cornwall, England, aged 18, arrived in St. Kitts, Leeward Islands with his twin brother Simon on
5 March 1634/5 aboard the Margaret. This John could have made his way to Virginia.
Joel Martin  and John Martin  were transported to Virginia on 10 August 1635 on the Saf ety. The fact that John
named a son Joel, makes this one a strong candidate.
Both John Martins fit the age of the subject.
Martin was married three times. His first wife was the widow of Henry Watson, whom he married about 1645. They had two
children, John Jr. and Ann. John was a minor as late as 1666-68 and died in 1671. Ann was born between 1645 and 1660.
He married second, by 1660, Grace Dyer, widow of John Dyer, by whom he fathered Grace.
John's third wife was Anne Thorowgood Keeling. They married by 1665 and had a son Joel. Joel was probably born in late
1665 or early 1666.
Anne Keeling and John Oakham were married on 15 Oct 1666 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 John
Oakham2 was born circa 1638–40 in Virginia.2 He died circa 1670 at the age of 32 in VIirginia.2
Anne Keeling and Lt. Col. Anthony Lawson were married before 16 Feb 1670/1 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British
America.2 Lt. Col. Anthony Lawson2 was born circa 1630 in Londonderry, Derry, N. Ireland.2 He died on 3 Jul 1701– 1 Oct
1701 at the age of 71 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.2
3. Adam Keeling6 (Thomas-1) was born circa 1638/9 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.6 He died circa Dec
1683 at the age of 44 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.6 Adam married Ann Martin, step-daighter to his sister,
Anne. Keeling wrote his will on 2 April 1683. It was proved on 10 December of that year. He named his brother Alexander
in the document.
daughter of John Martin and _______ Watson, was born circa 1645–1655 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.
She died after 1693 at the age of 48 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.
4. Alexander Keeling2 (Thomas-1) was born circa 1642 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 He died on 3
May 1704 at the age of 62 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.5 Alexander Keeling married Grace Martin, his sister
Anne's other step-daughter.
In his will, prved 3 May 1704, Alexander named his eldest son Edward, wife Grace, sons Thorowgood, Robert and Thomas,
daughters Grace, Anne and Elizabeth and granddaughter Pembrook. His wife was named executrix. John Thomas and John
Okeham [brother-in-law] were witnesses.
After Keeling's death, Grace married Henry Snayles.
Alexander Keeling and Grace Martin were married on 10 May 1677 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.2 Grace
Martin, daughter of John Martin and Grace Dyer, was born circa 1659–60 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.
5. Sarah Keeling2 (Thomas-1) was born circa 1644 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 She died before 29
Jan 1686/7 at the age of 43 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 Sarah was not named in the will of her
husband, Henry Woodhouse [29 Jan 1686/7 - 21 Feb 1686/7].
Sarah Keeling and Henry Woodhouse were married circa 1662 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 Henry
Woodhouse was born circa 1640 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 He died between 29 Jan 1686 and 21
Feb 1686/7 at the age of 46 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2
6. Frances Keeling (Thomas-1) was born circa 1646 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.7 She died circa 1694
at the age of 48 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.7
Frances Keeling and Renatus Land Sr. were married circa 1665 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.7 Renatus
Land Sr., son of Francis Land and Frances [Land], was born circa 1641 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.7
He died on 1 May 1681 at the age of 40 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.7 Renatus was born in Lower Norfolk
Co., Virginia about 1641. His father died when he was 16. Renatus inherited 250 acres adjoining the land left to his brother Francis.
On 4 March 1662, Renatus, as executor of his father's will, was in receipt of his father's 1020 acres. [400 acres on the
Chespian River in Lynn Haven Parish; 150 acres on a creek northwest of Cobb Howell's land; 270 acres at the head of
Francis Land's devident; 200 acres granted to Francis Land on 6 June 1654.]
Land married Frances Keeling about 1665.
In 1666, Renatus was the attorney for his mother-in-law, Anne Jermy when she made gifts to her children by 1st husband
Thomas Keeling: Alexander Keeling, Grace Snail Martin, Frances [wife of Renatus Land], Elizabeth, Adam, Thorowgood,
Lucy Hayes Hall, Edward, Anne [wife of John Okeham]. [Deed proved: 1669.]
According to the will of Renatus Land, he and Frances Keeling were the parents of five children: Renatus, Edward, Robert,
Elizabeth and Ann.
Renatus made his will on 1 October 1680. He left eldest son Renatus that part of his plantation "now in occupation of David
Whittford" at age 19, and a gold ring engraved with death heads. 2nd son Edward and 3rd son Robert were to receive the
remainder of the plantation, a pair of silver Cod buttons and a set of silver buttons for a shirt collar. Robert was also
bequeathed a silver hat band. Eldest daughter Elizabeth was left a small diamond ring. Bequests were also made to daughter
Ann and wife Frances. Executors were son Robert and brother Francis. [Proved: 10 May 1681.]
The will of Renatus Land poses a dilemma f or Land reseachers. The will presumably gives the birth order of the sons and
daughters. Renatus Jr. is identif ied as the eldest, Edward the middle son and Robert the youngest. Elizabeth was named as
the eldest of the two girls, with Ann then being the youngest.
Numerous f amily trees give the births of the f ive children as f ollows: Renatus [1656, 1661 or 1671], Edward [1659, 1665 or
1667], Robert , Elizabeth [1660 or 1670] and Ann . The undocumented year of marriage f or Renatus Land and Frances Keeling is without exception, 1665.
The will also states that Renatus Jr. was not yet 19. None of the children could have been born bef ore 1661/2. It is doubtful that any of them were born three or four years before Renatus and Frances married.
Assuming then that the couple was married in 1665, Renatus was about 24 and Frances about 19. Renatus Jr., the eldest,
would have been born about 1666. (Birth order f or the younger f our is speculative since Renatus neglected to lump sons and daughters together.Edward would have followed about 1668. Elizabeth about 1670, Robert about 1672 and Ann about 1674.
Robert's wife, Phebe Bonney, was born about 1684. Although a 20 year age gap between spouses was not uncommon a 12 year gap would be more reasonable.[Robert - 1672; Phebe - 1684]
Renatus Land and Frances Keeling had the following child:
8 i. Robert Land Sr., born ca 1672, Lynn Haven, Lower Norfolk, Virginia, British America; married Phebe
Bonney, ca 1700, Lynn Haven, Princess Anne, Virginia, British America; died 20 Mar 1727–1 May
1728, Lynn Haven, Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.
7. Thorowgood Keeling5 (Thomas-1) was born circa 1648 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 He died on 31 Mar1679–15 Aug 1679 at the age of 31 in Princess Anne, Virginia, British America.5 Thorowgood was named in his sister
Elizabeth's will in 1670 and that of his mother in 1666.
His will written 31 May 1679 and proved 15 Aug 1679 names daughters Lucy and Ann, [step-] father Robert Bray and notes
that his mother is still living. Wife, Lucy was named executrix. Henry Woodhouse and William Cornick were empowered to
see the performance of the will. (Brief Abstracts of Lower Norf olk County and Norf olk County Wills, 1637-1710; Charles
Fleming McIntosh, p . 67)
Thorowgood Keeling and Lucy Hall were married circa 1670 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 Lucy Hall2
was born circa 1650 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.2 Lucy was the daughter of Edward Hall. Following the
death of Thorowgood Keeling in 1679, she married Adam Hayes.
1. "Ancestry Family Trees", database, Ancestry.com, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 5 September 2016),
"Ridley Branches," Keeling - Thorowgood families; submitted by jridley47, [CONTACT INFORMATION FOR PRIVATE USE].
2. Alice Granbery Walter, The 17th Century Families of John Martin & Thomas Keeling of Lower Norf olk County,
Virginia: [Linhaven Parish, Princess Anne County, Virginia] (Virginia Beach, VA: Alice Granbery Walter, 1974), ; digital images Family Search (www.familysearch.org : accessed 7 September 2016.
3. FamilySearch, "England & Wales Christening Index 1530-1975," database, FamilySearch.org (www.familysearch.org)
: accessed 1 September 2016), Anne Thorowgood; FHL film #991595.
4. "Ancestry Family Trees," database, Ancestry.com, "Ridley Branches," Keelings.
5. "Sir France Land Families of Virginia", database, Ancestry.com, Roots Web World Connect Project
(http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=AHN&db=babecatfish&cid=11068&p... : accessed 23 August 2016),
"Sir Fance Land Families of Virginia," Land & Keeling Families; submitted 2009 by Patricia, [CONTACT INFORMATION FOR
6. "Geni.com", database, Geni.com (www.geni.com : accessed 10 September 2016), "Ens. Thomas Keeling," Keeling
Children; submitted 2014 by Ann Morrison Halley, [CONTACT INFORMATION FOR PRIVATE USE].
7. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [LDS], "Pedigree Resource File," database, FamilySearch
(familysearch.org : accessed 2016), Eleanor McClanahan; submitted by Land, Janke, Antle, Wells Tree, 8 Feb 2015.