Although not much is known of the Keeling ancestors of Thomas, several of the confirmed Keeling children bear names common to Anne's family: Thomas [found in both lines], Adam [Anne's uncle], Edward [another uncle], Thorowgood [family surname], Anne [herself, grandmother], Frances [mother], and Elizabeth [maternal grandmother].
Thomas Thorowgood had the following child:
3 i. John Thorowgood, born ca 1500, Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England; died ca 1560, Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England.
3. John Thorowgood1–2 (Thomas-2, John-1) was born circa 1500 in Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England.1–2 He died circa 1560 at the age of 60 in Chelston Temple, Hertfordshire, England.1
John Thorowgood had the following child:
4 i. John Thorowgood, born ca 1530, Felsted, Essex, England; married Anne Lucken, ca 1560, Grimston, Norfolk, England; died ca 1600, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
4. John Thorowgood1–2 (John-3, Thomas-2, John-1) was born circa 1530 in Felsted, Essex, England.1–2 He died circa 1600 at the age of 70 in Norwich, Norfolk, England.1
John Thorowgood and Anne Lucken were married circa 1560 in Grimston, Norfolk, England.1–2 Anne Lucken1, daughter of Thomas Lucken, was born circa 1534 in Essex, England.1 She died circa 1596 at the age of 62 in Essex, England.1
5 i. William Thorowgood, born ca 1560, Grimston, Norfolk, England; married Anne Edwards, ca 1585, England; died 16 May 1635, Felstead, Essex, England.
William married three times. Anne Edwards, whom he married by 1585, was the mother of his nine children.He married widow Mary Dodge after 1620 and widow Alice Holbeck about 1625.
Vicar William Thorowgood died 16 May 1635 in Felstead.
William and Anne Edwards had nine children:
 John: [see next]
 Thomas of Grimston: B.A. from Queen's College, Cambridge, 1613-14; M.A., 1617; B.D., 1624; Rector of Little Massingham, 1620; of Grimston, 1625; one of the assembly of Devines; teice Clerk of the Convocation.
 Edmund of Markham: married Frances, daughter of Edward Smith of Chelston Temple, Essex.
 Mordaunt: died at Seige of Breda.
 Adam: b. 1602/3; went to Virginia in 1621; returned to England and married Sarah Offley in London on 18 July; Justice of the Peace; member of the Council of Virginia; acquired over 1000 acres in Virginia; ship's captain; d. 1640.
 Frances: married Robert Griffith of Wales.
 Robert: mayor and captain in King's Lynn, Norfolk; married Anne, daughter of Edward Hawke of Norfolk.
John was Secretary to the Earl of Pembrooke. He was inservice to the Duke of Buckingham, Gentleman Petitioner to King Chsrles I. Thorowgood was knighted by Charles I at his coronationation in Scotland in 1630. Sir John took part in the Civil War on the side of Parliament. He was a member of the Privy Council under Charles II. John resided at Kensington, Middlesex.
He married Frances, daughter of Thomas Meautis, Esquire, of West Ham, Essex before 1613.
John was named overseer of his brother Adam's will dated 17 February 1639/40. Adam became a prominent settler in Lynnhaven Parish, Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia after serving as an indentured servant. He would go on to transprt 105 persons to Virginia and amass land holdings of over 5000 acres thanks to those 105 headrights. Among those whom he transported to Virginia was Thomas Keeling, the future husband of his niece Anne.
Sir John Thorowgood died in 1664.
7. Ann Thorowgood4–5 (John-6, William-5, John-4, John-3, Thomas-2, John-1) was born circa 1613 in Hertfordshire, England.6 She died circa 16 Jan 1687 at the age of 74 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.4–5 Ann's identity and parentage is somewhat muddled. Most sources, primarily undocumented, give her maiden name as Thorowgood. The mystery then becomes three-fold:
(1) Was she the brother of prominent Lynn Haven settler Adam Thorowgood [1602-1640] and the daughter of William Thorowgood [1560-1625] and one of his three wives, Anne Edwards, Mary Dodge or Alice Holbeck?
(2) Was she the daughter of Adam Thorowgood [1602-1640] and Sarah Offley?
(3) Was she the daughter of one of Adam's elder brothers, John, Thomas, Edmund, Mordaunt or William?
In her 1974 publication The 17th Century Families of John Martin & Thomas Keeling," Alice Granbery Walter makes the claim that Ann's maiden name was as of yet unknown. She also notes that the names of the Keeling children [Adam, Thorowgood, Edward, Elizabeth, Sarah, Frances and John were all common to Thorowgood families.] Adam Thorowgood had convinced Thomas Keeling to join in the settlement in Lowe Norfolk.
There is also the issue of her date of marriage. 1630, 1634 and 1637 are the primary dates offered. If Ann was born in 1618, she would have been 12 in 1630; 16 in 1634 and 19 in 1637. The latter is the most reasonable. Ann and William are recorded with children born as early as 1630 and 1635.
Most sources, again, undocumented, give Ann's birth about 1618. A few give her birth as about 1608. 1608 would allow for a marriage in 1630 [age 22]. However, Ann would have been 46 when her youngest was born in 1654.
There is also a christening date of 27 February 1613 in Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire, England for an Anne Thorowgood, daughter of John Thorowgood. [England Select Births & Christenings 1530-1975; Familysearch.org]
Other entries for Anne Thorowgood [Thorogood, Thoroughgood]:
6 Feb 1602 [father - Abraham];
12 Feb 1614 [father - Abraham]; both Sawbridgeworth.
Other Hertfordshire entries:
7 Oct 1604 Reed [father - Phillip];
24 Mar 1604 Ware [father - John];
11 Nov 1604 Barkway [father - John];
28 Dec 1618 Reed [father - Jonathan]
11 Aug 1611 Crostwick, Norfolk [parents - Edward & Bridgett]
A birth date just prior to February 1613, would make Anne about 21 in 1634, the predominant year of marriage. This would make much more sense that a birth about 1618.
Anne married three times. The first was to Thomas Keeling, about 1634/35 in England. Her second was to William Jermy, about 1665. Jermy died 15 January 1666. Anne's final marriage was to Robert Bray, after 1666. Anne died in 1687.
Following his term of indenture, Keeling returned to England. He married Anne Thorowgood, daughter of Sir John Thorowgood and Frances Meauris. John was Adam Thorowgood's elder brother. The Keelings returned to Virginia in 1634 on the John and Dorothy, with Adam Thorowgood the ship's captain.
Thomas Keeling received two headrights of 100 acres on the Back River in Elizabeth City Co. on 18 November 1635. (Elizabeth City Co. originated as Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, from which New Norfolk Co. was formed in 1636, and became Upper and Lower Norfolk Counties the following year.) He was granted 200 acres on 9 November 1643 for transporting four people. The tract was near Francis Land's plantation. This tract was transferred to William Shipp in 1647. On 25 October 1651, Keeling was granted 700 acres near the head of the main branch of the Lynn Haven River for transporting 14 people.
In a deposition taken in 1637, Thomas gave his age as 24 "or thereabouts." He gave his age as 34 "or thereabouts" in 1642. These depositions would place his birth between 1808 and 1813. Similarly, Anne's age was given as 22 in 1640 [born about 1618].
Thomas was a vestryman in 1640. He was appointed County Lieutenant for Lower Norfolk in 1659.
Thomas was a witness at the 15 December 1659 trial of Ann Godby, who accused Nico Robinson's wife of being a witch. Godby was ordered to pay the accused 300 pounds of tobacco, a cask of wine and assessed court costs. [Godby had been flogged for defamation in 1648 and filed a complaint in 1650.]
Keeling's will was written on 1 October 1664 and proved on 17 October 1665.
Estimates on the birth of the Keeling children begin as early as 1628. All of the children are shown as being born in Virginia. The fact that Thomas returned to England, unmarried, in 1634 excludes birth estimates prior to 1635. Thomas received his 1635 headright of 100 acres for the transport of two persons - himself and his new bride. The earliest birth? Perhaps shortly after the Keelings arrived in Virginia.
Anne's 1666 will [proved 1689] named the following children: Alexander, Sarah [Henry] Woodhouse, Ann [John] Oakham, Frances [Renatus] Land, Elizabeth, Adam, Thorowgood and Edward.
In a 1666 deed, Ann mentioned her son Edward, heir to "his brother" Thomas, deceased.
Elizabeth Keeling's will [30 Oct 1670 - Apr 1671] named her brothers Alexander and Thorowgood.
Adam Keeling's will [2 Apr - 10 Dec 1683] named brother Alexander and brother-in-law Anthony Lawson [widower of sister Anne].
In a deed dated 18 March 1683, Ann Bray mentions her son Edward and Thomas who had been dead for some years.
Confirmed from these documents are the following children of Thomas and Anne: Alexander, Sarah Woodhouse, Ann Oakham, Frances Land, Elizabeth, Adam, Edward and Thomas.
Children named in other sources were Jane, John and Leonard
Jane's birth is given c1635 and death c1654. If she was a daughter of Thomas and Anne, the 1654 death would explain her omission from later records.
John is shown as the youngest, born c1654 and died 1 July 1701. If he belongs to this family, John should have been named in several of the documents.
Leonard is the most problematic. His birth is generally shown as 1628-1632, but as late as 1636. His birthplace is given as Jamestown, James City, VA. Leonard died c1689 in New Kent Co. or Davidson Co., TN (which did not yet exist!) He married Naomi/Nancy Ferguson. The Keeling family seems to have remained in Lower Norfolk/Princess Anne Co.
Ann Thorowgood and William Jermy were married circa 1665 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5 William Jermy5 died on 23 Apr 1666–15 Jan 1666/7 in Lower Norfolk Co., Virginia, British America.5