The 1880 census introduced two new features, how members of the household were related to one another and the birthplace of each person's parents. This helped genealogical research a great deal.
This was also the first time "Indian" was included as a race.
State, county, township, town/city, enumeration date - 1 June.
 name of each member of the household and their relationship to the head of the household
 name of the street and house number for urban areas
 sex, race, age, marital status, ability to read and write
 birthplace and birthplace of parents
 occupation and number of months unemployed
 whether blind, deaf, dumb, crippled, maimed, idiotic, insane, bedridden, other disability
New states: Colorado [38 total]
Territories: Arizona, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Indian [included Indians only] and the non-organized territory of Alaska