The 19th century saw the industrialization of the North begin and the growth of agriculture continue in the South. Immigration was slow for the first 30 years of the century, but westward migration was strong. The 1830s kicked off a new wave of immigration as canals, railroads, towns and factories required people to build them. Mining opportunities sprang up as well; coal and lead in the east and gold in California. Still, most Americans were still living off the land as farmers.
1820s - 1830s: Americans migrated to the Mexican state of Texas.
1830s: British, Irish Catholics, Germans, Scandinavians and Central Europeans began to enter the US to take jobs on the canals, railroads, etc.*
1830 -1840: French immigrants joined the Brits and Germans.
1841 1850: The Potato Famine in Ireland forced Irish to flee their homeland for opportunities in America.* [Prior to 1845, most Irish immigrants were Protestants. After that the majority were Catholics.]
1848: The end of the Mexican War opened up the Southwest to settlement.
1849: The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill, brought in immigrants from all over Europe and started immigration from Asia, primarily China.
1850 -1855: Germans made their way into the Midwest.
1860: With Civil War on the horizon, immigration slowed again.
The stage was set for the last few families to join the mix. The McHughs arrived during the early 1830s to mine coal, lead and to farm. The Wagners and Laubschers arrived by 1841[lead mining] and Catherine O'Neil in 1852.